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北欧丹麦和瑞典两国的跨海大桥

The cost of The Bridge between two nations
北欧丹麦和瑞典两国的跨海大桥

Swedes call it Öresundsbron. Danes use the spelling Øresundsbroen. Around the world many know it simply as The Bridge, the name of the multi award-winning Nordic Noir drama screened in more than 100 countries that uses the connection as its brooding backdrop.

厄勒海峡大桥,在瑞典语中叫作“Öresundsbron”,丹麦语则是“Øresundsbroen”。全世界,很多人对其的了解仅是出现在《边桥迷案》(The Bridge)里的那座桥,这部拿下多项大奖的北欧剧集以连接丹瑞两国的大桥为背景,在100多个国家播出,剧情阴郁沉重。

It is huge. With a mass of 82,000 tonnes, held up by two 204m-long metal pylons and stretching for 16km, including its underground tunnel section, it is one of the longest bridges in Europe. It connects Sweden’s third largest city, Malmö with Denmark’s capital, Copenhagen, scrapping the need to take a lengthy ferry or flight across the Oresund strait.

大桥很大。主体重82,000万吨,两座金属桥塔高204米,如果把海底隧道包括在内,大桥跨度达16公里,是欧洲最长的大桥之一。这座大桥连接了丹麦首都哥本哈根(Copenhagen)和瑞典第三大城市马尔默(Malmö),无需搭乘漫长的轮渡或航班即可穿过厄勒海峡。
 

Pontus T. Pagler, a 31-year-old actor from a rural town north of Malmö who appeared in Season Four of The Bridge, recalls how tricky it was to make the journey before it was built. “We travelled to Malmö, but not to Denmark as you do now...it was too far and too long of a ride,” he remembers.

31岁的演员帕格勒(Pontus T. Pagler)来自马尔默北部的村镇,曾出演《边桥迷案》第四季,他谈到了大桥落成前的通行何其麻烦。据他回忆,“我们赶到马尔默,但从马尔默到丹麦没有如今这么方便,路途漫漫,遥不可期。”

As a teenager raised in the 1990s, he was aware that investment in infrastructure was more focused around the larger Swedish cities of Stockholm and Gothenburg. “Growing up, I think we felt neglected in a certain way. It’s just a feeling you had.”

作为一名成长在1990年代的青少年,他当时便清楚基础设施投资更多地聚焦于瑞典的大城市——斯德哥尔摩和哥德堡。“长大的过程中,我觉得在某种程度上,人们有种被忽略的感觉。只不过是一种感觉。”

But the opening of the Oresund bridge in 2000 represented a major economic shift, dramatically improving cross-border access and cutting journey times. Instead of queuing for weather-dependent ferries that took around an hour, passengers could drive over the bridge in just 10 minutes or travel between central Malmö and central Copenhagen in just 34 minutes by train. The landmark quickly became one of the best-known symbols of European cross-border collaboration.

然而,厄勒海峡大桥于2000年正式通车,这标志着经济上的重大转变,大幅增加了跨境接触机会,缩短了路程时间。轮渡受天气影响,到达对岸坐船要花约一小时,而如今人们无需为此排队等候,因为开车通过大桥只需10分钟,坐火车从马尔默市中心到哥本哈根市中心不过34分钟。很快,这一地标成为欧洲跨境联通最出名的象征。

“It’s really fast, and you can go there and back in the same day. That’s the biggest impact, I think. And if you want to stay there a weekend or something it’s very, very easy,” says Pagler.

帕格勒说:“真的很快,人们可以当日往返。我觉得这是最重要的影响。如果人们周末想去度假什么的,非常便捷。”

The body count

人次车次统计


In 2017 a record average of 20,361 vehicles passed over the bridge each day and approximately 14,000 commuters took the train, despite temporary identity checks lengthening journey times during the first half of the year. Prior to the bridge opening, around 6,000 people a day commuted by ferry.

2017年,大桥的日均车流量创下新高,达20,361车次,铁路运送旅客约14,000人次,虽然上半年暂行的身份核查导致了路程时间的增加。大桥通车前,每天约有6,000名旅客乘船从厄勒海峡经过。

“I think my career would have been much slower if we didn’t have the bridge,” says 43-year-old Nichole Friberg, a managing director for an IT company who lives in Malmö but has been working in Copenhagen for 12 years.

43岁的互联网公司总经理弗莱堡(Nichole Friberg)住在马尔默,但在哥本哈根工作已有12年,她说:“我觉得如果没有这座大桥,我的事业不会发展得这么快。”

“It’s more dynamic and all the companies I have joined have been quite international, and that is quite important to me since I am multicultural myself - half Peruvian, half Swedish,” she explains. “You have the opportunity to spend your day in a larger city that is a little bit more chaotic than Malmö. Then you get to come home to a little bit of peace and quiet.”

她解释称:“这里更具活力,我待过的所有公司国际化程度都比较高,这对我来说比较重要,因为我自身就是多元文化的产物,秘鲁和瑞典各占一半。白天得以生活的大城市比马尔默稍微混乱一点。回到家里又有片刻的宁静。”

While the vast majority of commuters come from Sweden, the bridge also makes it easier for Danish residents to network with their Swedish counterparts.

客流中大部分是从瑞典出发,大桥让丹麦和瑞典两地市民的联系更加便捷。

In Malmö city centre, Neil Murray, 34, who lives in Copenhagen and invests in start-ups across the Nordics, is grabbing a latte in between meetings on both sides of the Oresund strait.

在马尔默的市中心,34岁的穆雷(Neil Murray)在厄勒海峡两岸开会的间歇赶紧喝了杯拿铁,他住在哥本哈根,投资的初创公司遍布北欧。

“I can’t really think of any other place in the world where two strong tech ecosystems exist within half an hour of each other, so for me I see it as a competitive advantage that I can see start-ups in two different countries, because of a bridge,” he says.

他说:“两个强劲的科技生态圈相距半小时以内,我真的想不出世界上还有什么地方是这样,因此在我看来,这具有竞争优势,一座大桥让我可以同时看到两个不同国家的初创公司。”

Worth the wait?

千呼万唤始出来?


But while the bridge has clearly transformed transport in the area, the project was a long time coming and has faced numerous challenges.

大桥显然颠覆了该区域的出行方式,但该项目的酝酿由来已久,遭遇了重重挑战。

Engineers had been putting forward proposals for a bridge or a tunnel to the Swedish and Danish governments since 1936. They finally signed an agreement to build a bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in 1991. Sweden’s goal of boosting cooperation with the rest of Europe (it joined the European Union in 1995) was a key catalyst, alongside Denmark’s desire to increase air traffic from Copenhagen’s Kastrup airport.

自1936年始,瑞典和丹麦两国政府就不断收到工程专家提出造桥或铺设隧道的方案。1991年,两国政府终于签订协议,同意建造连接马尔默和哥本哈根的大桥。瑞典的目标是促进同欧洲其他地区的交流(瑞典于1995年加入欧盟),大桥起到了关键的推动作用,与此同时丹麦配套增加了哥本哈根凯斯楚普(Kastrup)国际机场飞往丹麦的航班。

Both nations supported a stronger regional identity for the Oresund area (home to more than 3.5 million people at that time) by encouraging closer ties between businesses and educational institutions. Locally, there was an urgent need for Malmö to evolve following the collapse of traditional industries such as textiles and shipbuilding.

两国支持加强厄勒区的区域认同(当时的居民超过350万人),鼓励工商业界和教育机构之间增进联系。就马尔默本地而言,纺织和船舶等传统产业垮掉后,转变增长的需求迫在眉睫。

“Malmö was regarded as a very dull and grey city and there were lots of pessimistic views among politicians, the business community and also among ordinary people,” remembers Christer Persson, who was director of strategic development in the city between 1989 and 2003 and is currently writing a book about the impact of the Oresund bridge.

佩尔森(Christer Persson)自1989至2003年担任马尔默市战略发展部长,目前正在创作的新书是关于厄勒海峡大桥的影响。据他回忆,“马尔默曾被认为是非常沉闷又灰色的城市,政界商界还有普通百姓之间都怨声载道。”

“The government made an investigation and they came to the conclusion that ‘this is the time to build a bridge’, because that could make a change,” he explains from a student lounge at Malmö university, where he is a guest lecturer.

身为客座教授的他在马尔默大学的学生休息区解释道,“政府展开调研,得出结论称‘是时候修建大桥’,因为[两地交通便利]会让城市有所改变。”

“They hoped to accelerate the transformation process of the city, from being a traditional old industrial town to a modern city with small and medium-sized companies in the new modern branches like IT, design, biotechnology for example.”

“他们希望加快城市转型,从传统的工业重镇变为现代新城,有如互联网、设计、生物科技等新型现代行业的中小企业落户。”

‘A fantastic adventure’

“奇幻的旅程”


These were ambitious goals that came with a price tag. The cost of building the bridge and related essential infrastructure like roads and stations was 30bn Danish krone ($4.3bn; £3bn).

这些宏伟目标都造价不菲。修建大桥和周边重要的基础设施,如公路和车站,耗资达到了300亿丹麦克朗(43亿美元;30亿英镑)。

But both governments sought to secure public engagement by minimising the impact for taxpayers. The main bridge structure was paid for by loans shared between the Swedish and Danish states, to be paid back over 30 years using toll fees.

但两国政府对纳税人的影响降至最小,极力确保公共参与度。大桥的主要桥梁结构依靠贷款支付,由瑞典和丹麦两国共同承担。政府以征收过桥费来还贷,时间限制为30年。

For Kim Smedegaard Andersson, a Danish engineer fresh out of university who was hired by an engineering firm working on the assignment, the excitement was palpable. “It was a fantastic adventure to go into a project like this,” he says.

丹麦工程师安德森(Kim Smedegaard Andersson)刚刚毕业,他受聘的设计事务所负责该项目,对他而言,兴奋之情显而易见。他说:“参与像这样的工程是场奇幻的旅程。”

But he also remembers his whole team feeling the weight of responsibility. They had to overcome logistical issues like making sure the bridge wasn’t too high to pose a threat to landing planes or too low, which could have blocked shipping.

但他也记得整个工程队深感责任之重。必须克服交通方面的问题,比如确保大桥不能过高,以免给起降的航班造成威胁,也不能过低,这会阻碍航运。

“No-one had constructed a project like this before, in such close proximity to an airport and a busy navigation channel, and in-between two Scandinavian countries.”

“此前没有过类似的项目,紧邻国际机场和繁忙的通行水道,而且连接了斯堪的纳维亚的两个国家。”

There were unexpected setbacks too, including the discovery of 16 unexploded World War Two bombs and two unusually icy winters which made it difficult to transport materials.

团队也碰到意想不到的困阻,包括发现了16枚二战时期未引爆的炸弹,也曾两度遭遇异常寒冷的冬天,使得运送建材变得困难。

Sustainability was also controversial: green campaigners protested and Sweden’s Environment Minister Olof Johansson resigned because of his concerns.

可持续问题也引发争议:环保倡导者提出抗议,瑞典能源部长约翰松(Olof Johansson)因出于担忧而辞职下台。

“The whole ecobalance in the Baltics was debated,” remembers Smedegaard Andersson. “There were challenges to solve every day.”

安德森追忆往事时说:“当时讨论的是波罗的海的整体生态平衡。每天都有要解决的难题。”

Detailed efforts were made to satisfy critics, including a campaign to encourage travellers to use the train rather than their cars. Motorway lights were positioned to avoid disturbing eels and pylon lighting switched off in fog to limit bird collisions.

为了使批评者满意,政府开展了详细的工作,包括发起鼓励人们搭乘火车以代替私家车出行的倡议,安设高速公路的照明时可以避免干扰海洋生物,大雾天气时关闭了桥塔灯光,以减少鸟类相撞的事故。

The construction ended up being completed with stereotypical Scandinavian efficiency in just five years, several months ahead of schedule.

凭着斯堪的纳维亚式的高效,大桥的竣工仅花了五年,比预期提前了几个月。

There were celebratory activities such as special runs and cycle rides for members of the public and an inauguration ceremony attended by the Swedish and Danish royal families.

正式通车前,两国举行了隆重的庆祝仪式,包括公众参与的桥上竞跑和自行车赛,落成典礼由丹麦皇后和瑞典国王主持。

Smedegaard Andersson recalls being asked to provide commentary for Danish television network TV2. “I was speaking when the first cars and motorcyclists were using the link. That was an amazing experience,” he smiles.

德森记得接受丹麦电视二台(TV2)的采访并发表的评论。他笑着说:“我接受采访时,桥上首次有汽车和摩托车开过,那种体会太不可思议了。”

Not enough traffic

车流量不足


Early on, Christer Persson remembers, there were concerns that “there just wasn’t enough traffic” and that this could hamper debt repayment by the two governments.

佩尔森重提往昔,开通初期,人们关心的问题是车流量确实不足,这会给两国政府偿还贷款造成阻碍。

During the autumn of 2000 there was a daily flow of between 7,000 and 10,000 vehicles compared to a peak of around 14,000 during the summer holiday season.

2000年秋季,每日车流量在7,000至10,000车次之间,暑假期间达到最高,约为14,000车次。

“Some of us said: ‘If you are investing in such a large project that is going to stand for like 100 years, do you really have to have a payback time of 30 years?’ Because if you choose to have a longer payback time, you can of course lower the prices,” he says.

他说:“有的人们说:‘如果政府投资兴建这么大规模的项目,可能100年后还继续存在,那么还真得要以30年为偿还贷款期限吗?’因为如果将偿还期拉长,过桥费自然就可以下调了。”

Later that year the cost of a single car trip, then priced at 255 Swedish kronor (around £17 at the time) was temporarily cut by almost half to 140 kronor to encourage more people to try the journey.

当年晚些时候,单程私家车收费从原来的255瑞典克朗(约折合17英镑),暂时调降到140克朗,降价是为了鼓励更多的人使用大桥。

Prices rose again as public interest increased. The current cost of a single trip is 515 kronor per car (£45.78; $56.88) although there are major discounts for frequent travellers and advance online purchase. Earlier this year Oresundsbro Konsortiet, the Danish-Swedish organisation that owns and runs the bridge, predicted that all debts would be to be repaid by 2033, four years ahead of earlier estimates. Train prices today start from 111 kronor (£9.60; $12.28).

随着车流逐渐增加,过桥费再次加价。目前,单程私家车收费为515克朗(45.78英镑;56.88美元),不过对于经常使用大桥的车主和网上提前购票有大额折扣。丹麦瑞典联合组织厄勒海峡大桥财团(Oresundsbro Konsortiet)是大桥的持有方并负责运营,今年早些时候,财团预计所有贷款将于2033年还清,比此前的预期提早四年。如今铁路票价为111克朗起(9.60英镑;12.28美元)。

Border scuffles

边境检查


By far the biggest challenge since the bridge opened has been the Swedish government’s temporary reintroduction of photo identity checks for travellers between January 2016 and May 2017, as Sweden sought to limit the flow of asylum seekers. More than 163,000 asylum seekers arrived in Sweden in 2015, falling to 29,000 in 2016.

自大桥通车以来,迄今为止最大的难题是2016年1月至2017年5月期间,瑞典力图限制难民潮,瑞典政府对客流重新采取照片身份核查的暂行方案。2015年,瑞典接收的难民超过163,000人,2016年降至29,000人。

The additional controls increased journey times by around 30 minutes and led to service cuts. The number of rail passengers dropped by 13% in 2016, according to Danish train operating company DSB.

新增的安检使路程时间延长约30分钟,导致班列车次减少。根据丹麦铁路运营商(DSB)数据显示,2016年,使用铁路的人数下降了13%。

Sweden’s transport authority Länsstyrelsen released a survey suggesting two out of three Swedish commuters were experiencing higher levels of stress and had considered either changing jobs or moving to Denmark.

瑞典交通部门的管理委员会(Länsstyrelsen)发布调查称,每三名使用大桥的瑞典人中,有两人感到负担加重,考虑换工作或者迁至丹麦。

“It was impossible not knowing what time you were going to get to work or what time you were going to get back from work,” laments Nichole Friberg.

弗莱堡哀怨地表示:“不知道何时到公司上班也不知道何时下班回家,这可行不通。”

She initiated sharing a minibus with colleagues so they could drive to work in Copenhagen instead of going by train, a system which they still use despite the abolition of the ID checks in May 2017.

她发起和同事中巴拼车,这样他们可以自驾去哥本哈根上班,不用搭火车,虽然2017年5月已取消身份核查,他们仍然采取了这种用车方式。

But the latest ticket sales statistics from Swedish regional rail company Skånetraffiken suggest that most passengers who sought alternative transport have now returned to the tracks. By October 2018, the number of rail commuters had rebounded to 2015 levels.

但瑞典区域铁路公司(Skånetraffiken)最新的售票统计显示,大多数采用其他交通方式的乘客如今已经回流。截至2018年10月,使用铁路的人数有所反弹,回到2015年的水平。

Swede success?

瑞典式成功?


Economic geographer Magnus Andersson says the impressive commuting figures are largely a result of Swedes helping to “plug gaps in the Danish service sector” as well as professional roles in niche industries.

经济地理学家安德森(Magnus Andersson)表示,两岸的交通流量成绩斐然,很大程度上归功于瑞典人协助“填补了丹麦在服务业的空白”,以及在产业全面划分方面发挥的专业角色。

He says there are two other key indicators that highlight the huge economic impact of the bridge.

他表示,还有两项关键指标突显了大桥巨大的经济影响。

Firstly, more than 60 companies from a wide range of industries have moved their Nordic headquarters or specialist offices to Malmö since 2000, helping to fulfil the city transformation goals that Swedish government set in the 1990s.

首先,自2000年起,超过60家公司已将其北欧总部或专业部门迁至马尔默,涉及的行业范围广泛,促进了瑞典政府于90年代制定的城市转型目标。

Secondly, he says that the bridge has “improved individual livelihoods” by offering locals subtle changes. Danes can access more affordable housing in southern Sweden, cheaper shopping due to currency differences and can enjoy southern Sweden’s coastline and forests.

再者,他表示大桥“改善了个人的生活”,为当地人带来微妙的变化。丹麦人可以购置瑞典南部更便宜的住房,外币差额使购物更划算,还能享受瑞典南部的海岸线和森林的风光。

Swedes have the chance to experience the food and design industries that the Danish capital is globally famous for and make the most of Copenhagen’s large international airport, Kastrup.

瑞典人有机会实现食品与设计行业的发展,丹麦的首都在此方面誉满全球,还可以充分发挥哥本哈根最大机场凯斯楚普国际机场的优势。

“Malmö is not only linking up to Copenhagen, but it also links (Sweden) to a global network of cities. When I think about the future for Malmö, that link is of utmost importance,” Andersson says.

安德森称:“这不仅是连接马尔默和哥本哈根的干线,更是瑞典通向国际都市群的大桥。展望明天的马尔默时,这座大桥最具重要性。”

Nordic Noir tourism

北欧犯案剧集旅游


From a global perspective, both the bridge and the airport have been instrumental in foreign visitors to the region too. In Copenhagen there were around 3.6m overnight stays from international visitors in 2000, the year the bridge was completed, rising to 7m 2017, according to figures shared by Oresundsinstitutet, a Danish-Swedish regional research hub. Malmö has also experienced a boost, especially in more recent years. There were 480,000 overnight visits from foreigners in 2008, increasing to 820,000 in 2017.

从全球的角度看,大桥和机场也对抵达这里的国外旅客有所帮助。去年,全球旅游目的地城市指数(Global Destination Cities Index)评定欧洲增长最快的度假之地,哥本哈根位列其中,从2009至2016年,入境过夜旅客人数增加了8.1%。厄勒研究所(Oresundsinstitutet)是丹麦瑞典联合区域研究中心,根据其提供的数据,在大桥完工的2000年,哥本哈根的国际入境过夜旅客人数约为360万人,2017年攀升至700万人。马尔默也呈现出增长态势,特别是近些年。2008年,国际入境过夜旅客为48万人,2017年增加至82万人。

Jonas Løvschall-Wedel, a spokesperson for the Danish capital’s official tourist board, Wonderful Copenhagen, says it is hard to quantify how much of this tourism is connected to the popularity of The Bridge television series. However the emergence of Nordic Noir day tours and the fact that Wonderful Copenhagen now uses the slogan ‘one trip – two countries’ in its branding are clear signs that it has had an impact.

丹麦首都的哥本哈根旅游局(Wonderful Copenhagen)官方发言人勒夫绍尔·威德尔(Jonas Løvschall-Wedel)表示,旅游业的发展在多大程度上归功于热播的电视剧集《边桥迷案》,但其影响难以量化。然而,兴起的一日游、哥本哈根旅游局如今打出的“一次旅行两个国家”的宣传口号,显然都是剧集起到作用的表现。

“It’s weird when people exotify your own culture or your own environment,” laughs The Bridge actor Pontus T. Pagler, who says he was shocked to meet fans from as far away as Australia at the Scandinavian premiere of the fourth season.

参演《边桥迷案》的帕格勒笑着说:“人们把属于我们的文化或环境推广开来,我感觉有点奇怪。”他说在斯堪的纳维亚的第四季首映礼上,粉丝最远从澳大利亚赶来,这让他很震惊。

“But I think it’s cool...The southern part of Sweden has gotten a boost now, which we haven’t had before.”

“但我觉得这样不错。瑞典南部地区的经济如今有所增长,这在过去是没有的。”

The Oresund bridge has also offered inspiration for similar engineering projects in South Korea and China as well as plans for the so-called Femern tunnel, designed to connect the Danish island of Lolland with the German island of Fehmarn by 2028, pending German approval.

厄勒海峡大桥也为韩国和中国相似的建造项目提供了灵感,所谓的费马恩(Femern)隧道也受其启发,隧道连接丹麦洛兰岛和德国费马恩岛,计划于2028年完成,视德国的批准时间而定。

Kim Smedegaard Andersson, no longer a fresh-faced engineer, is deputy technical director for the tunnel, and is one of several senior managers who previously worked on the Oresund link or the Great Belt Bridge that connects the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen.

不再面带稚嫩的工程师安德森如今担任隧道技术主任的副职,包括他在内的几名高级主管曾经参与厄勒干线的工作,以及大贝尔特桥(Great Belt Bridge)的建设,大贝尔特桥将丹麦的西兰岛(Zealand)和菲英岛(Funen)连接在了一起。

“We know what it takes to get approval, because we have learnt the lessons from the Great Belt and the Oresund project,” he says. “We have a good understanding of what happens with the environment and we have utilised that in the development of our project.”

他说:“我们明白获得政府批准要付出何等努力,因为我们从大贝尔特桥和厄勒海峡大桥的项目中汲取过教训。我们充分了解建设将会对环境造成的影响,在项目的开发过程中,我们便将过去的经验加以利用。”

Identity crisis

身份危机


But despite its inspirational economic success, many observers agree that the Oresund bridge has had a much more limited impact in terms of forging a new regional identity.

然而,尽管厄勒海峡大桥的经济成果鼓舞人心,许多观察家认为就建立新的地区身份而论,大桥的影响差强人意。

Christer Persson argues that it was a case of “too much, too soon” when it came to initiating cross-border projects between companies and institutions after the bridge opened, many of which “faded out” after a couple of years.

佩尔森认为,大桥通车后,公司与机构之间发起跨境合作项目“数量太多,运作太快”,其中很多项目几年后就停止了。

These included plans for closer links between Malmö and Copenhagen universities, allowing students to study on both sides of the strait.

项目规划包括,马尔默与哥本哈根高校间加强联系,允许学生跨境就读。

“The expectations were very big, but it was difficult to fulfil them,” he says, citing differences between the education systems alongside the rapid pace of globalisation.

伴随着全球一体化的飞速发展,教育体制参差不齐,他以此为例称,“期望相当高,但难以实现”。

“It became less interesting for many to collaborate across the border instead of with actors in other parts of the world.”

“对很多人来说,跨境合作变得没有那么有意思,不如与世界其他地方的重要伙伴行业作。”

More recent initiatives have involved controversial efforts to rebrand the whole Oresund region as Greater Copenhagen, which marketeers have argued is an easier identity for international visitors to grasp.

近期的倡议还引发了争议,要将整个厄勒区更名为大哥本哈根区(Greater Copenhagen),旅游供应商指出该名称更利于国际旅客的理解。

But Magnus Andersson says it’s been challenging to get residents to think beyond their existing labels.

但经济地理学家安德森表示,让市民跳出现有的标签来思考,历来都是难题。

“Copenhagen people are very proud of being Danish and living in a capital, and on the Swedish side people have quite a strong regional identity, so merging these two identities has not proven to be easy.”

“哥本哈根人理所当然以身为丹麦人为荣,而另一边的瑞典人,对地区身份感很强,因此身份的融合并不简单。”

That said, he believes you’d struggle to find anyone in the region who doesn’t feel closer to their Scandinavian neighbours than they did before the bridge was built.

即使如此,他认为,相比大桥建成前,人们感觉与斯堪的纳维亚邻国居民的关系更进一步了,厄勒区找不出什么人对此否认。

“In senior high school some of my friends were actually demonstrating against the bridge and today we are making fun of them… We laugh because today we cannot imagine life without the bridge”.

“读高中时,一些我的朋友还示威游行反对过建设大桥,如今我们拿他们开玩笑。我们笑道,如果没有大桥,我们无法想象今天的生活是什么样。”
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