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乌兹别克地铁:体现苏联风格的富丽堂皇

An underground world of Soviet opulence
乌兹别克地铁:体现苏联风格的富丽堂皇

Amazing opulence

令人神往的华丽


During Soviet times, if a city’s population topped one million, it would become eligible for its own metro. Planners wanted to brighten the lives of everyday Soviet citizens, and saw the metros, with their tens of thousands of daily passengers, as a singular opportunity to do so.

苏联时期,如果某城市的人口超过100万,它就获准建造地铁。规划者们希望每一位苏联公民的生活都变得丰富多彩,而地铁每天运送数万名乘客,可以最好的实现此目标。

In 1977, Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, became the seventh Soviet city to have a metro built. Grand themes celebrating the history of Uzbekistan and the Soviet Union were brought to life, as art was commissioned and designers set to work. The stations reflected different themes, some with domed ceilings and painted tiles reminiscent of Uzbekistan's Silk Road mosques, while others were decorated with chandeliers and marble to give the appearance of European ballrooms. The result has been described by Lonely Planet as one of the most beautiful Soviet metro systems in the world.

1977年,乌兹别克斯坦(Uzbekistan)首都塔什干(Tashkent),成为第七个拥有地铁的苏联城市。凭借设计师的艺术创作,乌兹别克斯坦和苏联恢弘的历史被赋予了生命。车站设计涵盖不同的主题,一些车站采用圆顶和彩砖,让人想起乌兹别克斯坦丝绸之路上的清真寺,而另一些车站则用枝形吊灯和大理石装饰,呈现出欧式舞厅的气质。《孤独星球》(Lonely Planet)将其描述为世界上最美丽的苏联风格的地铁系统之一。

Silk Road history

丝绸之路的历史


Alisher Navoi station, named after the celebrated Uzbek writer and artist, is one of Tashkent Metro’s most famous stops. Inside, the arched domes and blue tilework remind passengers of Uzbekistan’s storied Silk Road history with its ancient mosques and madrassas. The station is one of Tashkent’s busiest, filled not only with bustling commuters but also tourists and locals taking photos – a practice that was forbidden until recently.

阿利舍尔·纳沃伊车站(Alisher Navoi)是塔什干最著名的地铁站之一,以著名的乌兹别克斯坦作家和艺术家纳沃伊的名字命名。站内的拱形穹顶和蓝色瓷砖让乘客想起乌兹别克斯坦历史悠久的丝绸之路、古老的清真寺和伊斯兰学校。该车站是塔什干最繁忙的车站之一,挤满了熙熙攘攘的上班族,还有游客和当地人在拍照。直到不久前,在这里拍照的禁令才被解除。

Hidden away

掩体


When the Tashkent Metro was built, photography was banned in its stations because of its ancillary role as a nuclear bomb shelter. During Soviet times, fears of spying and a tight control on information meant photography was largely distrusted, especially around sensitive military infrastructure, including bomb shelters.

塔什干地铁建成时,由于具备核攻击掩体的辅助功能,因此车站内禁止摄影。在苏联时代,因为对间谍活动的恐惧和对信息的严格控制,摄影在很大程度上是很可疑的行为,特别是在像防空洞这样的敏感军事设施周围。

After the fall of the USSR in 1991, Uzbekistan’s former Soviet party leader, Islam Karimov, took power and continued the policy. Karimov’s successor, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, however, began undertaking reforms, seeking to open up the country’s economy and attract investors and tourists. Perhaps realising the metro’s potential as a tourist draw, the government removed its classification as a military installation in mid-2018 and lifted this 41-year ban on photography.

1991年苏联解体后,乌兹别克斯坦前苏联时代的领导人卡里莫夫(Islam Karimov)上台,延续了这一政策。然而,米尔济约耶夫(Shavkat Mirziyoyev)继任后,开始改革开放,吸引投资者和游客。2018年年中,政府意识到地铁的旅游业潜力,取消了其军事设施的分类,并解除了长达41年的拍照禁令。

Themed stations

主题车站


Inside the Tashkent Metro, stations are all uniquely designed and decorated in marble, granite, glass, ceramics and alabaster. Many of the motifs centre around a specific theme, often described in the station’s name. For example, Kosmonavtlar Station (pictured) on the O’zbekiston Line references Soviet cosmonauts and celebrates the Soviet Space Program, while Pushkin Station, which honours the life of the famous Russian author and poet, sits a few stops away on the Chilonzor Line.

在塔什干的地铁里,车站都有独特的设计和装饰,有大理石、花岗岩、玻璃、陶瓷和雪花石膏。许多设计围绕一个特定的主题,通常以车站的名字来描述。例如,奥茨贝克斯顿线(O'zbekiston Line)的克斯莫纳夫塔站(Kosmonavtlar Station),围绕着苏联宇航员和苏联太空计划的成就;而在几站之遥的奇龙佐线(Chilonzor Line)上普希金站(Pushkin Station),则为了纪念这位著名的俄罗斯作家和诗人。

The Space Race

太空竞赛


A portrait of Yuri Gagarin, the first person in space, adorns the wall of the Kosmonavtlar Station. Gagarin, and other early cosmonauts, were some of the USSR’s most important heroes, symbolising Soviet power and supremacy during the Space Race and widely depicted in Russian propaganda. Around him, the walls are lined with surreal portraits of famous cosmonauts floating through space amid a futuristic design of blues and blacks – similar to the colours astronauts would see as they left Earth’s atmosphere.

加加林(Yuri Gagarin)是进入太空的第一人,克斯莫纳夫塔站的墙上有他的肖像。加加林和其他早期宇航员是苏联最重要的英雄,在宣传作品中广泛出现,代表着苏联在太空竞赛中的力量和霸权。车站墙壁上,在加加林周围,排列着著名宇航员们的超现实肖像。这些肖像漂浮在蓝色和黑色的未来主义设计中,与宇航员离开地球大气层时看到的颜色相似。

Proletariat flair

无产阶级天赋


In true Soviet fashion, the work of the proletariat is also celebrated. In Pakhtakor Station (which translates to “Cotton Picker”), stylised images of cotton are depicted in huge mosaics across the metro walls. The Soviets envisioned Uzbekistan as a vast cotton-producing nation, reworking the agricultural economy and diverting waterways until the country produced 70% of the USSR’s cotton needs. This famously led to environmental disaster when the Aral Sea – once the world’s fourth-largest freshwater lake – began drying up, leaving fishing fleets and port towns rusting in newly created deserts.

车站艺术也以苏联方式赞扬了无产阶级的工作。在帕克塔克车站(Pakhtakor Station,翻译过来就是“采棉花工人”),巨大的棉花时尚设计镶嵌在地铁墙上。苏联人把乌兹别克斯坦设想成巨大的棉花生产国,对其农业结构进行改造,改造水系,直到生产出苏联所需的70%棉花。但此举也造成巨大的环境灾难——世界第四大淡水湖咸海(Aral Sea)开始干涸,曾经的渔业和港口城镇在新形成的沙漠中衰落与枯竭。

Soviet trains

苏联火车


Underneath this veneer of opulence, the metro has a very Soviet, utilitarian feel at times. Many of the trains still operating today are of a well-known class, 81-717/714 cars, which were designed in the mid-1970s and are common throughout post-Soviet metros. There are four carriages per train, serving the stations’ 100m-long platforms. As of 2013, 168 of these distinctive blue-painted, Soviet era trains still operated, but they are being slowly replaced by newer models.

在华丽的外表下,地铁也带有苏联式的实用主义色彩。今天仍在运行的许多地铁列车都是著名的81-717/714车厢,它们是在上世纪70年代中期设计的,在前苏联时期很常见。每列火车有四节车厢,配合车站100米长的站台。截至2013年,仍有168辆这种独特的蓝色涂装的苏联时代列车在运行,但它们正慢慢被新型了列车所取代。

Cheap and popular

便宜和流行


A trip on the metro costs 1,200 Uzbek soms (around £0.10). The price ensures that Uzbek residents, whose minimum wage is just 527,000 som per month (£43.50), can manage to travel around the city. The metro is also growing: a second line was opened in 1984, and a third line, which opened in 2001, is still expanding, with plans to eventually connect the northern districts to the airport in the south.

乘坐地铁的费用是1200乌兹别克斯坦索姆(约合£0.10)。这一价格保证了乌兹别克斯坦居民(最低工资仅为每月52.7万索姆,或£43.50)能够在城市中出行。地铁也在发展:1984年开通了第二条线路,2001年开通的第三条线路仍在扩建中,计划最终将北部地区与南部的机场连接起来。
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