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韩国济州岛海女传统:这是世界上最美味的海胆面吗?

Is this the world's freshest seafood?
韩国济州岛海女传统:这是世界上最美味的海胆面吗?

Cast off the southern tip of South Korea, Jeju Island rises from the Pacific’s emerald waters in a medley of colours. White-sand beaches and black jagged rocks ring much of the coast, basalt craters pocket the volcanic isle’s interior and in the small town of Pyeongdae-ri, an orange-roofed restaurant called Pyeongdae Sunggae Guksu sits by the beach. Step inside and the first thing you’ll notice is a series of photographs tacked to the wall of female divers emerging from the water.

韩国南端的济州岛从翡翠色的海水中升起,色彩斑斓。白色的沙滩和黑色锯齿状的岩石环绕着海岸线,玄武岩包住了这座火山岛。在小镇平大里(Pyeongdae-ri),一家橙色屋顶的餐厅坐落在海边,这家餐厅名叫“平大里海胆面屋”(Pyeongdae Sunggae Guksu)。走进店里,你首先会看到一张张贴在墙上的照片,照片中是刚从水里出来的女潜水者。

The divers are a community of women known throughout the country as haenyeo (literally: “sea women”), and they are often likened to mermaids for their ability to plunge more than 10m into the sea without using oxygen masks to gather shellfish, abalone and other creatures. Haenyeo call what they do mujil, (“water work”), and spend up to seven hours a day, 90 days a year prying molluscs and other sea life from the rocky ocean floor barehanded or with a sharp fishing spear. Before a dive, the women hold hands in prayer and ask Jamsugut – the goddess of the sea – for safety and abundance. And after spending several minutes underwater, they emerge and send a fluted whistle across the waves to communicate with their fellow divers.

这些女潜水者在韩国被称为“海女”(Haenyeo),有时也被人们比作美人鱼,因为她们可以在没有任何潜水装备的情况下,潜入到10米深的海水中,采捕鲍鱼、贝类等海鲜维持生计。海女们将自己的工作称为“水工”,她们每天工作7小时,一年工作90天,赤手空拳地或用锋利的鱼叉从岩石中抓取猎物。在每次下水前,她们会手牵手祈祷,祈求“潜嫂”(Jamsugut,海洋女神)保佑她们安全和丰收。在潜水几分钟后,她们会探出头来,通过吹哨和其他海女交流。

Jeju’s unique tradition of female divers dates back to at least the 17th Century. The rocky island’s scarcity of farmable land; poor, volcanic soil and harsh winds have led islanders to farm the sea instead. The arduous work of haenyeo became especially necessary when Korea was under Japanese rule between 1910 and 1945, and again during the extremities of the Korean War in the early 1950s, when more and more women had to take up work to contribute to their households.

济州独特的女潜水者传统至少可以追溯到17世纪。这个多岩石的岛屿缺少可耕种的土地,贫瘠的火山土壤和刺骨的寒风让岛民们将目光投向海上。1910年至1945年间,当朝鲜半岛被日本统治时期,以及1950年代初朝鲜战争后期,越来越多的女性不得不承担起养家糊口的工作。

In the past, girls as young as seven years old would train to become haenyeo. According to the Jeju Haenyeo Museum: “In 1965, when the numbers of haenyeo were at their peak, over 23,000 Jeju diving women were working. That was roughly 21% of the total population of women over age 15, and nearly 80% of all those employed in the island’s fisheries industry.” But in recent decades, as women have increasingly left the island and opted for more modern work, Jeju’s haenyeo have dwindled and aged. Today, according local government figures, fewer than 4,000 haenyeo remain, and 84% are 60 or older.

在过去,女孩从7岁开始就会被训练成海女。据济州海女博物馆(Jeju Haenyeo Museum)的介绍:1965年,海女的数量达到顶峰,有超过23,000名。这大约是当时15岁以上女性总人口的21%,是岛上渔业从业人员的近80%。但近几十年来,随着越来越多的女性离开济州岛,选择更现代的工作,济州海女的数量在减少,年龄也在变老。根据当地政府的数据,目前海女还剩下不到4000人,其中84%的人年龄在60岁或以上。

Although haenyeo have been able to earn a better living by selling their harvest to local fishermen in recent decades, their back-breaking profession has historically been considered low-class and dangerous, as many divers have died on the job and suffer from decompression sickness. And though their catches often end up on dinner tables across Korea, few haenyeo have traditionally had the education or autonomy to take full control of their business. But thanks to changing societal perceptions in recent years and the haenyeo practice being inscribed as a Unesco Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2016, things finally appear to be changing.

虽然近几十年来,海女通过售卖海产给当地渔民获得了不错的收入,但从历史上看,她们的职业一直被认为是辛苦而且地位低等。因为许多海女会在工作中死亡,并且做这个职业很容易患上减压症。虽然她们采捕到的食物常常出现在韩国的餐桌上,但她们很少有机会接受教育或是掌控业务自主权。但近年来由于社会观念的变化,且海女在2016年被联合国教科文组织列为人类非物质文化遗产,情况终于发生了变化。

海女可以屏住呼吸好几分钟,下潜至10米深的海水下

“The moment I found out about [the Unesco recognition] was the first time I felt proud to be a haenyeo,” said 65-year-old Park Suk-hee, who owns and operates the Pyeongdae Sunggae Guksu restaurant along with her 34-year-old daughter, Ko Ryou-jin (who is also a haenyeo). Of the many eateries on Jeju that claim to be run by divers today, Park’s little orange-roofed noodle joint is believed to be the only licensed restaurant that is actually owned and operated by haenyeo and serves dishes made from haenyeo-caught seafood.

65岁的海女朴石熙(Park Suk-hee,音译)说:“当我得知被联合国教科文组织认可时,我生平头一次为自己海女的身份而骄傲。”她和34岁的女儿高良珍(Ko Ryou-jin,她也是一名海女)共同拥有和经营着“平大里海胆面屋”。如今,济州岛上有许多据称是由潜水者经营的店铺,但这家橙色屋顶的餐馆据信是唯一一间真正由海女经营的店铺,它以由海女采捕的海鲜而闻名。

Park and Ko opened Pyeongdae Sunggae Guksu out of their one-storey home in 2015. A courtyard divides the family’s restaurant from their residence and a collage of photos, newspaper clippings and thank-you cards from customers cover the restaurant’s walls. There’s a signed letter from Korean President Moon Jae-in commending them for their haenyeo work, printed stills from television shows where the two have appeared and a photo of Ko swimming with the Olympic torch ahead the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Games. Four four-person tables face the kitchen, and even when I showed up on a Tuesday at 15:00, every seat was filled as Park and Ko busily flitted between tables, ringing up orders while keeping an eye on Ko’s six-year-old daughter.

2015年,朴石熙和高良珍母女俩人在她们的平房里开设了这间餐馆,一座庭院将餐厅与她们的住所分隔开来。餐厅的墙上贴满了照片剪贴和顾客写的感谢卡。韩国总统文在寅也有给她们写过一封信,赞扬她们的工作。墙上还有两人出现在电视节目中的剧照,以及高良珍在海水中传递2018年平昌冬奥会火炬的相片。餐厅只有四张四人餐桌,即使我是在周二下午三点到访也都是满座,朴石熙和高良珍忙着在桌子间穿梭,一边通过电话接单,一边看着高良珍六岁的女儿。

Empty sea urchin shells were perched on the windowsill, and a sign under the cash register states, “100% of our seafood has been caught by Pyeongdae-ri haenyeo in Pyeongdae-ri waters. 100% of our vegetables are from Jeju Island, and 100% of our kimchi is Korean.”

窗台上放着空空如也的海胆贝壳,收银台下的牌子上写着,“我们的海鲜100%由平大里的海女在这里的海水中捕捞,我们的蔬菜100%来自济州岛,泡菜100%是韩国的。”

“A Jeju islander can tell imported fish from local fish straightaway,” Ko told me. “Jeju fish has a stronger aroma and a sweeter taste.” In fact, the family’s restaurant is named after their signature dish, sunggae guksu (“sea urchin noodles”) – a traditional Jeju dish made with wheat-flour noodles served in a warm broth and topped with vegetables and sea urchin roe.

“济州岛的居民可以很容易分辨出进口鱼类和本地鱼类,”高良珍告诉我:“济州鱼的香味更浓,味道更甜。”事实上,这间餐厅就是以招牌菜——海胆面(Sunggae Guksu)命名的,这是一道传统的济州菜,用小麦面配上热汤,在上面盖有蔬菜和海胆鱼子。

Traditionally, the noodles for sunggae guksu are cooked in an anchovy broth that’s rather easy to come by. But after growing tired of the fishy smell of the broth, one day 12 years ago, Park experimented with a sample batch of noodles using sea urchin as the base for the broth. “There’s really no recipe. You boil the broth with sea urchin. You cook the noodles. You top it with sea urchin, carrots, scallion and sesame seeds. That’s it!” Now, just four years after opening, locals and visitors come from all over Korea to taste the family’s unique take on this Jeju classic and for the rare chance to eat inside a haenyeo home.

传统上,海胆面是用凤尾鱼汤煮的,但在12年前的一天,朴石熙厌倦了凤尾鱼汤的腥味,就尝试改以海胆做汤底做了一批样品。“过去真的没有这样的食谱,你用海胆汤做汤底、煮面条,在上面放海胆、胡萝卜、葱和芝麻。就是这样!”现在,开业仅仅四年后,无论是当地人还是来自韩国其他地方的游客都来品尝这家人对韩国传统美食的创新,并体验在海女所开的餐厅中用餐。

As per haenyeo guidelines, sea urchin harvesting is only permitted from March until June. While Park and Ko plunge deep into the ocean for much of the year in search of other sea-to-table creatures, during these months, they don wetsuits, face masks and flippers and wade just 1m into the surf with their team of six other haenyeo divers. The women scour the ocean floor for the spiny, black-coloured echinoderms hidden among the black volcanic rock. “If the weather is good, we can see a sea urchin’s spikes from afar,” Ko said. “But if it’s not, we have to feel around the rocks to find them.”

根据海女的习俗,每年只有从三月到六月可以捕捞海胆,其余时间,朴石熙和高良珍都在海水中寻找其他海鲜。海胆捕捞季期间,她们都穿着潜水服和蛙鞋,戴着面罩,和其他六名海女一起,在海底搜寻隐藏在黑色火山岩中的刺状黑色棘皮动物。“如果天气好,我们从很远的地方就可以看到海胆的尖刺,”高良珍说:“但如果不是这样,我们就必须在岩石周围摸一摸才能找到它们。”

Park and Ko purchase their share of sea urchin for a discount rate and employ other haenyeo to help pry the shellfish open and harvest its creamy golden roe. A productive day might yield as many as 1,000 in one trip. Park says most haenyeo use a knife to slice the spiky shell open, but she and her team just use their bare hands. “All I need is a spoon to scoop out the flesh,” she said.

朴石熙和高良珍也以折扣价从其他海女的那里购买海胆,并雇用海女来帮忙撬开海胆,取出里面奶油色的鱼子,产量最高的时候,一天可以收获1000个海胆。朴石熙说,大多数海女都是用刀来切开尖尖的壳,但她和她的团队只是徒手操作。她说:“我只需要一个勺子来挖出肉来。”

From there, what is not served the same day in the restaurant is immediately stored, dated and frozen fresh for the rest of the year. “It does taste a bit sweeter if you have it in season, but we manage to freeze them at their freshest,” Ko said. “Most other restaurants keep them in freezers with no idea which fish was caught where and when it was stored.”

接着下来,不是当天供应的就立刻储存起来,标明日期后可以冷冻保鲜一年。“如果是当季的,味道会更甜一些,但我们会设法在它们最新鲜的时候把它们冷冻起来,”高良珍说:“其他餐厅只是把海鲜放在冰柜里,却不知道是它们是在哪里和什么时候被捕获的。”

Back in the kitchen, Park tastes the broth on a daily basis to ensure a consistent flavour and prepares the ingredients while Ko serves and mans the register. Other items on the menu include a type of cold noodle topped with spicy sauce called bibim-guksu, a deep-fried pancake called seafood jeon and a plate of seasonal raw fish. Depending on the season, the bibim-guksu and jeon can be made with octopus or conch that are harvested by hand some 10m deep from the seabed floor. And should you visit between late summer and early autumn, follow the islanders’ leads and order the raw octopus, with its chewy purple exterior and crevice-filled tentacles.

在厨房中,朴石熙每天都会品尝汤底,以确保风味稳定,并在高良珍服务和收银的时候准备食材。菜单上的其他菜还包括炸酱面、海鲜饼、石锅拌饭和时令生鱼。根据季节不同,可以用章鱼或海螺肉来制作石锅拌饭或是海鲜饼,这些食材都是从海底10米深左右的地方采捕的,如果你在夏末和初秋来到这里,请根据当地居民的指示点一份生章鱼,你会看到它们有嚼劲的紫色外表和布满裂缝的触须。

Although haenyeo spend years diving for fish, historically, they have rarely had the opportunity to eat it themselves. Born at the end of the Korean War, Park’s own mother was a haenyeo until she retired at the ripe age of 90. “Growing up, sea urchin was way too expensive for us to eat,” she explained. “So, all we got to eat was miyuk-guk (seaweed soup) and rice – if we got to eat at all.” Ko’s father also had a lifelong illness that put the responsibility of providing for five children entirely on Park’s shoulders. “All haenyeo have had it pretty hard, but my mom went through a lot,” Ko said.

虽然海女花了很多年时间潜水捕鱼,但从历史上看,她们自己很少有机会吃到鱼。朴石熙出生于朝鲜战争末期,她的母亲也是一名海女,直到90岁高龄才退休。“在我们的成长岁月中,海胆对我们来说太贵了,”朴石熙说:“所以,我们只能吃海带汤和米饭。”高良珍的父亲患有终身疾病,这使得抚养五个孩子的重任完全落在了朴石熙的肩上。“每个海女都经历了很大的磨难,但我妈妈经历了更多。”高良珍说。

At 34, Ko is one of the youngest licensed haenyeo in the community. Despite government efforts to keep the tradition alive, hundreds of haenyeo retire every year and Ko says few younger people can bear the physical and mental pressures of the profession. A handful of haenyeo training schools have been established since 2008, but each only produces a few dozen graduates a year and even fewer of those students go on to pursue a career in the field.

34岁的高良珍是社区里最年轻的持照海女之一。尽管政府在努力保持这一传统,但每年仍有数百名海女离开这个行业。高良珍说,很少有年轻人能承受这一职业的身心压力。2008年以来,济州岛上成立了几所海女培训学校,但每年只有几十名毕业生,而毕业后从事这一行业的学生更少。

Ironically, Park never even let Ko near the water until she was 25 years old and only suggested haenyeo life to her six years ago. After her second child, Ko had been struggling with a severe case of postpartum depression. “I couldn’t find a regular nine-to-five and my mom thought that I would feel better if I tried going underwater. By focusing on the beauty of life underwater, I found my old self,” she said.

很讽刺的是,直到高良珍25岁,朴石熙才让她开始下海,而直到6年前才建议她做一名海女。在生完第二个孩子后,高良珍一直在与严重的产后抑郁症作斗争。她说:“我找不到朝九晚五的工作,我妈妈认为如果我试着去水下会感觉更好。通过关注水下生命的美丽,我找到了以前的自己。”

In addition to their remarkable freediving skills, haenyeo are renowned for their strong sense of community. The divers divide their profits evenly and the women support each other through pregnancies, illnesses and family crises. The most experienced haenyeo masters, known as sanggun, lend guidance to their juniors, teaching them the art of breathing underwater (called sumbisori) and other tricks of the trade.

除了卓越的自由潜水技能,海女还以强烈的社区意识而闻名。海女平均分配她们的利润,在怀孕、疾病和家庭危机中相互支持。最有经验的海女大师,被称为“上军”(Sanggun,意即首领),她们为晚辈提供指导,教他们水下呼吸术和其他潜水技巧。

As Ko trained to become a haenyeo, she and her mother thought about opening up a coffee shop in their family’s storage area. While brainstorming ideas for the space, Ko remembered how her mother had developed her own sunggae guksu recipe 12 years earlier. But while the two hoped to open up their own restaurant, the women faced the challenge of juggling a highly stressful business in the afternoons and evenings while maintaining their own supply chain in the mornings.

当高良珍在接受培训成为海女时,她和母亲想在家里的储藏室里开一家咖啡店。在头脑风暴中,高良珍想起了12年前母亲是如何开发出自己的海胆面食谱的。然而,当两人希望开一家自己的餐厅时,她们面临着严峻挑战:如何在早上下海工作,然后又在下午和晚上开店营业。

With the exception of August, when breeding season prohibits haenyeo from the waters, Ko and Park start their day at 06:00 in the sea. They dive for four to six hours before heading to the restaurant for a full day of service. Most nights, Ko tries to spend as much time as possible with her two daughters and Park attends mandatory environmental lectures for haenyeo or heads haenyeo meetings. On Wednesdays, the day they have off, Park said she farms.

除了在八月海胆的繁殖季不允许捕捞外,朴石熙和高良珍都是从早上6点开始她们的一天。她们潜水4到6个小时,然后去餐厅工作一整天。在晚上,高良珍会尽量多花时间陪她的两个女儿,朴石熙则会参加强制性的环境讲座或主持海女会议。在星期三休息日,朴石熙说她会去种地。

“I wake up before the sun rises and farm the carrots before it gets too hot. The scallions, the onions, the carrots… all the vegetables [we serve] here are actually from my field out back,” she told me. When I insisted on helping her farm, she took one look at me and said I couldn’t handle the hard work.

“我在太阳升起前起床,在天气变得太热之前种上胡萝卜。我们这里供应的大葱、洋葱、胡萝卜……所有的蔬菜实际上都是从我家后面的地里种出来的。”朴石熙说。当我坚持要帮她种地时,她看了我一眼,说我干不了这么辛苦的活。

来自韩国各地的人都想要品尝“平大里海胆面屋”独特的海胆面

There’s a word in Korean that roughly translates as “refreshing and soothing”: shiwonhae. When I first tasted Park’s hot sunggae guksu sea urchin noodle, they were so shinwonhae and brimming with umami flavour that I ate at Pyeongdae Sunggae Guksu all five days I spent in the village. Each day, I asked for a small portion of the noodles, and each day, she and Ko filled the bowl to the top. Park, like many Korean grandmas, smiled as I asked for extra servings of kimchi and returned the bowls empty to the kitchen. She seemed especially pleased the one day I came for both breakfast and dinner – sunggae guksu to start the day and a jeon for admiring the sunset.

在韩语中有一个词叫做shiwonhae,可以粗略翻译成“令人心旷神怡”的意思。当我第一次品尝海胆面时,觉得它们是如此新鲜,充满了鲜味,以至于我在平大里的五天时间都在“平大里海胆面屋”吃饭。每天,我都要一份海胆面,朴石熙和高良珍都把面条盛到碗顶。和许多韩国奶奶一样,当我要了一份泡菜并把碗空空如也地送回厨房时,朴石熙笑了。有一天,我来吃早餐和晚餐,朴石熙看起来特别高兴——她们家的海胆面是我开始新的一天和欣赏日落的最佳搭配。

One day, I overhead a man paying for his meal ask, “It’s only 8,000 won (£5.25) for a bowl of noodles?” Ko explained that her mother “doesn’t believe in having more than enough.” The fact that Ko and Park sell their own catches not only allows them to serve what’s freshest, but also keeps their prices down.

有一天,一个男子买单时问道:“一碗面才8000韩元(约合5.25英镑)?”高良珍解释说,她的母亲觉得“足够就好,过犹不及”。事实上,朴石熙和高良珍出售自己采捕的海鲜,不仅可以提供新鲜的食物,还可以维持低廉的价格。

Park said being a haenyeo has helped her value the sea and she sees her restaurant as a way of promoting what the ocean has to offer. “There are people who stay in the neighbourhood for three days and eat here all three days, and people who come here straight from the airport to have their first Jeju meal here,” she smiled. “I am truly thankful to the sea for allowing me to have such a full life.

朴石熙说,作为海女的一员,自己对海洋的价值有了更高的认识。她把这间餐厅看作是推广海洋价值的一种方式。她笑着说:“有些人在附近住了三天,三天都在这里吃饭,有些人是直接从机场来这里吃在济州岛的第一顿饭。我真的很感谢大海让我拥有如此充实的生活。”
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