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感恩节火鸡派对全攻略

The 2-D Thanksgiving
感恩节火鸡派对全攻略

Believe it or not, there is more than one way to roast a turkey. First, you must ask yourself what you really want. I’ll offer you three options: A fast, crisp-skinned bird, moist and not overcooked, served with roasted vegetables; a leisurely braised bird, also with veggies; or the classic stand-up roast, presented beautifully in all its glory, prepared in a straightforward manner.

信不信由你,烤火鸡有不止一种做法。首先,你得问问自己真正想要的是什么。我会给你三个选择:快速烹制的脆皮火鸡,多汁,不会烤得很干,与烤蔬菜一起上桌;慢慢炖出来的火鸡,也搭配蔬菜;或者传统的站立式烤火鸡,上桌的时候光彩照人,烹制方法又很简单。

If you want speed and don’t mind a novel look, choose the flattened bird, which employs a method that goes by the quaint name of spatchcocking. It takes a little work at first, because it’s a little more physical than other techniques: you have to remove the backbone, flatten the breast and dislocate the thigh joints from their sockets. None of this is difficult, but it may be a bit much for some. The reward is a lovely roasted bird with a not-overcooked breast and perfectly done legs; it also cooks in about an hour — yes, you read that right: an hour. The downside, apart from the butchering, is that some might consider it weird-looking.

如果你想要速度,而不介意外形的怪异,那么可以尝试烤制拍扁的火鸡,这种方法有个怪异的名字,叫spatchcocking(从背部撕开并烤制)。一开始要花点工夫,因为跟其他技巧相比,这个要多耗费些体力:你必须得去掉脊骨,拍平鸡胸,松开大腿关节。这些都不难,但是对有些人来说可能有点麻烦。这样做的好处是:鸡胸不会被烤得太干,鸡腿可以烤得很透;而且差不多一个小时就能烤好——是的,你看得没错:一个小时。这样做的缺点,除了上面提到的去骨过程有点麻烦外,就是有些人可能会觉得火鸡的外形有点怪异。
 

For the ultimate flavor, you want to braise your turkey with vegetables. It’s the sweetest, most tender — well, let’s not raise expectations any further, except to say that despite being cooked in liquid, this turkey still gives you a fair amount of crunchy skin. You do need a cut-up bird for this method, but you can shortcut that by simply buying pieces; most stores sell breasts (you can even buy them boned) and thighs, which is all you need. (Drumsticks are optional, though they’re good.) It’s not a fast recipe, and it takes some work. To make it perfectly, you should prepare your own stock. (It’s pretty straightforward: Take the backbone — or wing tips, or neck, or any other meaty bones you can find — and simmer it in water. Add onion, carrot, celery, peppercorns, bay leaf, parsley sprigs, garlic or whatever appeals to you. Figure an hour, maybe two; no longer. Strain before using. Frozen, the stock will last for months.) Much of the preparation, even much of the cooking, can be done in advance, and the payoff is high. The downside, again, is that you’re not putting that big ol’ bird on the table looking like Grandma’s.

如果你想要终极美味,那么你得试试蔬菜炖火鸡。它最美味、最鲜嫩——呃,我们还是不要把期望值定得太高了,只需说明一点就够了:尽管是炖出来的,你还是能吃到很多有嚼劲的鸡皮。这种方法确实需要用切开的鸡,但是想省事的话,直接买切好的就行了;大部分商店里都卖鸡胸肉(甚至有买带骨的鸡胸肉)和鸡腿肉,你需要的就这些(带骨的鸡大腿备选,虽然它其实也很美味)。这道菜不能很快就做好,要花些工夫。想要做出完美的炖鸡,你必须自己准备高汤(非常简单:用脊骨或翅尖、脖子,或者任何带肉的骨头,放在小火上慢慢炖,加入洋葱、胡萝卜、芹菜、干胡椒、月桂叶、欧芹的小枝、大蒜或者任何你觉得美味的东西。看着时间,要煮一个小时,也许两个小时,但是不能再长了。用之前,滤出高汤。冷冻起来,这样高汤可以用好几个月)。很多准备工作,甚至烹制的大部分工作,都可以提前做,你得到的回报也很高。同样,这种方法也有缺点:你做的火鸡看起来不像你祖母做的那样。

For the traditional look, I refer you to the recipe for a classic roast turkey. This bird is the one you know, and perhaps it’s the one you want. The reward is that this looks the way Thanksgiving dinner is supposed to look. The downside, quite frankly, is that it doesn’t taste nearly as good as these alternatives. I’m sorry, but it’s true.

如果你想做出传统外形的火鸡,那么请看看经典烤火鸡菜谱。它是你熟悉的火鸡,或许也是你想要的火鸡。这种做法的优点是:感恩节大餐看起来就应该是这样的。它的缺点是,坦白地说,没有上面两种那么好吃。对不起,这是实话。

On the other hand, preparing the classic turkey will give you time to focus on the side dishes. And dessert.

不过,烤制经典火鸡的话,你还有时间在配菜和甜点上多花些心思。

RECIPE

菜谱:

Classic Roast Turkey

经典烤火鸡


Time: 2½ hours or more

用时:两个半小时或更长

1 12-pound turkey

1只12磅的火鸡

1 recipe stuffing (recipe follows)

1个根据菜谱做好的馅料(后附菜谱)

1 stick butter or 2-3 tablespoons olive oil

1条黄油或者两三汤匙橄榄油

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

盐和现磨的黑胡椒

1 cup roughly chopped onion

1杯切成大块的洋葱

1 cup roughly chopped carrot

1杯切成大块的胡萝卜

½ cup roughly chopped celery

半杯切成大块的芹菜

Stems from one bunch fresh parsley, tied together (optional).

1把新鲜的欧芹秆,捆在一起(备选)。

1. Heat the oven to 500. Rinse the turkey and remove the giblets. Loosely pack the turkey cavity with stuffing, then tie the legs together to enclose the vent. Smear the bird all over with butter or brush it with olive oil, then sprinkle liberally with salt and pepper.

1. 把烤炉加热到500华氏度。洗净火鸡,去除内脏。在火鸡腔内松松地装入馅料,然后把两条鸡腿绑在一起,等于是封上了口。把火鸡身上涂满黄油或者刷满橄榄油,然后撒上大量的盐和黑胡椒。

2. Put the turkey on a rack in a large roasting pan. Add ½ cup water to the bottom of the pan along with the turkey neck, gizzard, any other trimmings, the vegetables and parsley. Put in the oven, legs first if you can.

2. 把火鸡放到大烤盘的架子上。在烤盘底部加入半杯水,以及火鸡的脖子、内脏、其他边角料、蔬菜和欧芹。放入烤炉,如果能做到的话,把腿先放进去。

3. Roast for 20 to 30 minutes, or until the top begins to brown, then turn the heat down to 350. Continue to roast, checking and basting with the pan juices every 30 minutes or so; if the top threatens to brown too much, lay a piece of aluminum foil directly onto it. (If the bottom dries out, add water, about ½ cup at a time; keep at least a little liquid in the bottom of the pan at all times.) The turkey is done when a thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the thigh measures 155 to 165 degrees (see note below). If, when the turkey is nearly done, the top is not browned enough, turn the heat up to 425 for the last 20 to 30 minutes of cooking.

3. 烤二三十分钟,或者烤至顶部开始变焦黄,然后把温度调低至350华氏度。继续烤,差不多每30分钟查看一次盘底的汁液;如果顶部有可能烤焦的话,直接在上面铺一张铝箔。(如果底部干了的话,加点水,每次大概加半杯;盘底要一直保持有液体。)把温度计插入鸡腿最厚的地方,如果温度达到了155至165华氏度(请看下面的提示),那火鸡就烤好了。如果火鸡差不多做好了,但是顶部还不够焦黄,把烤箱温度升高至425华氏度烤二三十分钟。

4. Remove the turkey from the oven. Take the bird off the rack and let it sit for about 20 minutes before carving.

4. 把火鸡从烤箱中取出,从烤架上取下,晾大概20分钟再切。

Yield: At least 15 servings. Adapted from ‘‘How to Cook Everything.’’

分量:至少够15人食用。改编自《烹饪大全》(How to Cook Everything)。

My Favorite Bread Stuffing

我最喜欢的面包馅料


Time: About 20 minutes, plus baking time

用时:大约20分钟,烘烤时间另算

2 sticks butter

2条黄油

1 roughly chopped onion

1杯切成大块的洋葱

½ cup pine nuts or chopped walnuts

半杯松仁或捣碎的核桃

6 to 8 cups bread crumbs

6-8杯面包屑

1 tablespoon minced fresh tarragon or sage leaves

1汤匙切碎的新鲜龙蒿或者鼠尾草叶

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

盐和现磨的黑胡椒

½ cup chopped scallion

半杯切碎的大葱

½ cup chopped fresh parsley leaves.

半杯切碎的新鲜欧芹叶。

1. Put the butter in a large, deep skillet or Dutch over medium heat. When melted, add the onion and cook, stirring, until it softens, about 5 minutes. Add the nuts and cook, stirring almost constantly, until they begin to brown, about 3 minutes.

1. 把黄油放入深底大煎锅或荷兰锅中,中火加热。黄油融化后,加入洋葱翻搅,直至变软,大约需要5分钟。加入坚果,几乎不停地翻搅,直至变焦黄,大约需要3分钟。

2. Add the bread crumbs and the herbs and toss to mix. Turn the heat down to low. Add the salt, pepper and scallions. Toss again; taste and adjust the seasoning. Add the parsley and stir. Turn off the heat. (At this point, you may refrigerate the stuffing, well wrapped or in a covered container, for up to a day before proceeding.)

2. 加入面包屑和龙蒿或鼠尾草,拌匀。把火关小。加入盐、胡椒和葱末。再次拌匀;尝尝味道,再调一下味。加入欧芹叶搅拌。关火。(此时,你可以把馅料冷藏起来,裹好或者放入有盖子的容器中,一天内使用都可以。)

3. Pack into a turkey if you like before roasting, or just bake in an ovenproof glass or enameled baking dish for about 45 minutes at 350 to 400. (You can also cook it up to 3 days in advance and just warm it up right before dinner.)

3. 如果你喜欢的话,在烤火鸡前,把馅料填入火鸡,或者直接把馅料放入耐热的玻璃碗或者瓷质烤盘中,用350至400华氏度烤45分钟。(你也可以提前3天烤好,用餐前加热一下就行了。)

Yield: About 6 cups (enough for a 12-pound bird). Adapted from ‘‘How to Cook Everything.’’

分量:大约6杯(够一只12磅的火鸡用)。改编自《烹饪大全》(How to Cook Everything)。

NOTE: At least one reader has expressed concern that a turkey will not be done if its internal temperature is less than 165, as the U.S.D.A. recommends. The recipe calls for temperature of 155 because salmonella is killed at 140 (as long as it’s held there for 12 minutes). Further, if turkey is cooked to 155, its temperature will rise to 165 or higher while resting. A temperature of 165 isn’t unreasonable, but the turkey’s temperature will rise to 175 or 180 before serving, and that’s overcooked. If you’re more comfortable cooking to higher temperatures, feel free, but expect drier meat.

提示:至少有一位读者表达过这种忧虑:如果火鸡内部的温度不到165华氏度,火鸡就没做好,就像美国农业部(USDA)建议的那样。菜谱上只要求温度达到155华氏度,因为沙门氏菌在140华氏度就能被杀死(只要连续加热12分钟)。另外,如果火鸡加热到155华氏度,在静置的时候,内部的温度会继续上升到165华氏度,甚至更高。农业部要求165华氏度并不是没有道理,但是在上桌之前,火鸡内部的温度会升到175或180华氏度,那样就烤得太过了。如果烤到更高的温度,你会更放心,你当然可以那样做;只是你要知道:烤出来的肉会更干。
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