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英国将投放千万辆电动车 并废除燃气供暖

Britain's energy regulator unveils plan to rip out gas central heating
英国将投放千万辆电动车 并废除燃气供暖

Plans to put ten million electric vehicles on the road within ten years and rip gas central heating from every home are unveiled on Feb 2.

根据2月2日公布的一项计划,英国将在十年内投放一千万辆电动汽车,并废除所有家庭用户的燃气集中供暖系统。

Energy regulator Ofgem has outlined how the nation will have to change the way it travels and heats homes to meet the Government’s target of net zero carbon emissions by 2050.

英国能源监管机构Ofgem概述了英国将如何改变出行和供暖方式,以达到政府2050年实现净零碳排放的目标。

The radical scheme to ‘greenwire’ Britain will be built around plans for a four-fold increase in electricity from wind farms around the coast. But the proposals will largely be paid for by families and businesses, adding billions of pounds to bills over the next 30 years.

这一激进的“绿线”项目将围绕着将沿海风力发电场的发电量提高4倍的计划展开。但这些提案将主要由家庭和企业买单,未来30年内将增加数十亿英镑支出。

It is suggested that building and running the infrastructure to support the roll-out of electric vehicles could be £2 billion a year, equivalent to £30 on every household bill.

该计划指出,建设和运行基础设施以支持推广电动汽车每年或需20亿英镑(约合人民币184亿元),相当于每个家庭支出30英镑。

And switching away from natural gas heating and hot water for homes and businesses will require spending as much as £20billion a year by 2050.

到2050年,家庭和企业将不再使用天然气供暖和热水系统,这将需要每年支出200亿英镑。

The Citizens Advice charity says there is evidence that millions of people do not understand the enormous scale of the changes required. And it warns efforts will be needed to help customers, particularly the most vulnerable, with the costs they face.

慈善机构公民建议表示,有证据表明,数百万人并不理解为何需要如此巨大的转变。该机构还警告说,需尽力帮助用户,特别是弱势用户,承担他们所面临的成本。

There will be doubts as to whether the regulator and energy industry can deliver on the proposals, not least because of the delays and massive cost overrun on the installation of smart energy meters in all homes.

一些人会怀疑监管机构和能源行业能否兑现这些提议,尤其是因为在所有家庭安装智能电表的过程中会出现拖延和巨额成本超支。
 

Ofgem argues that the electricity generated by wind farms will, in the future, be considerably cheaper than from traditional sources such as gas, coal and oil.

Ofgem辩称,在未来,风力发电厂发电将比天然气、煤炭和石油等传统能源发电价格低廉得多。

And it is proposing that owners of electric cars charge them through the night when power is cheap and then sell it back to the national grid at a higher price at peak periods.

该机构还建议电动车车主在电费低的夜间充电,然后在用电高峰期以更高的价格出售给英国国家电网。

As a result, the embedded power stored in the cars’ batteries will reduce the need to build new gas-fired power stations.

因此,储存在汽车电池中的嵌入式电力将减少建造新的燃气发电站的需求。

Ofgem said: ‘Increased uptake of electric vehicles creates a rare opportunity for a win-win-win for society, through lower carbon emissions, improved air quality and a more robust and low-cost energy system. But this will only be achieved if drivers are supported to charge their vehicles typically at off-peak times.

Ofgem表示:“通过降低碳排放、改善空气质量和更强大、成本更低的能源系统,电动汽车的普及为社会创造了一个难得的三赢机会。但这只有在支持司机主要在非高峰期充电的情况下才能实现。”

‘Support for drivers using their electric vehicles in novel ways will also be needed, for example by “vehicle-to-grid” technology to share energy from car batteries back to the electricity grid when it is needed.’ Ofgem envisages the number of electric vehicles will surge from 230,000 today to ten million by 2030 and 39 million by 2050. It argues this will only be possible if the current total of 30,000 public car chargers rises to 210,000, plus 3,500 rapid and ultra-rapid chargers near motorways.

“此外,还需要支持司机以新颖的方式使用电动汽车,例如通过‘车联网’技术在需要时将汽车电量分享回电网。”Ofgem预计电动汽车的数量将从现在的23万辆激增到2030年的1000万辆,到2050年将达到3900万辆。该机构认为,只有在现有的3万个公共充电桩增至21万个,外加高速公路附近安装3500个快速和超高速充电桩的情况下,才有可能实现这一目标。

At the same time, traditional natural gas central heating and hot water systems will have to be ripped out of millions of homes.

与此同时,数百万家庭将不得不放弃传统的天然气集中供暖和热水系统。

These will be replaced with electric heating and, potentially, a new gas system run on hydrogen, where the only emissions are water.

取而代之的是电力供热,或许还会有新型氢气燃气系统,这种系统唯一的排放物是水。

The regulator said: ‘The future of heating is less certain, with a range of possible different pathways to decarbonize.

Ofgem表示:“未来的供暖方式不太确定,可能会有一系列不同的脱碳途径。”

‘In 2017, just 4.5 percent of the energy used for heating the UK’s 29 million homes and other non-residential buildings was from a low-carbon source.

“2017年,英国2900万户家庭和其他非住宅建筑的取暖能源中,只有4.5%来自低碳能源。”

‘This number needs to rise significantly by 2050.’

“到2050年,这一数字需要大幅上升。”
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