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航空史上的客机被击落事件

Civilian Planes Shot Down: A Grim History
航空史上的客机被击落事件

A Ukrainian airliner, a Boeing 737-800, went down in Iran on Wednesday morning, killing at least 176 people. American officials believe that the Iranians brought down the airliner by mistake, with two missiles fired from an Iranian air defense system, the SA-15.

周三早晨,一架型号为波音737-800的乌克兰客机于伊朗坠毁,导致至少176人遇难。美国官员认为,这架客机是伊朗人意外击落的,他们从伊朗空中防御系统SA-15发射了两枚导弹。

Here are some of the most prominent passenger jets to be shot down — whether accidentally or, in some cases, deliberately:

我们列出了一些最著名的客机被击落事件,有些是意外发生的,有些是被故意击落的:
 

乌克兰飞机在伊朗德黑兰的坠机现场。

July 17, 2014: Malaysia Airlines Flight 17

2014年7月17日:马来西亚航空MH17航班


MH17 was flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, when it was blown out of the sky over eastern Ukraine, killing 298 people. In June, an international investigative team charged four people, including three with ties to Russian intelligence.

MH17在从阿姆斯特丹飞往马来西亚吉隆坡期间,在乌克兰东部上空被炸毁,298人遇难。今年6月,一个国际调查小组对四人进行了指控,其中三人与俄罗斯情报部门有联系。

Moscow has consistently denied any involvement in the disaster, but Western countries and experts have blamed Russian-backed separatists.

一直以来,莫斯科都否认与这场空难有任何牵连,但西方国家和专家们将其归咎于俄罗斯支持的分裂主义者。

Oct. 4, 2001: Siberia Airlines Flight 1812

2001年10月4日:西伯利亚航空1812航班


Seventy-eight people, most of them Russian émigrés to Israel, died when the flight from Tel Aviv to Novosibirsk exploded and plunged into the Black Sea off the Russian coast.

这架从特拉维夫飞往新西伯利亚的航班在空中爆炸并坠入黑海俄罗斯海滨,导致78人遇难,其中大部分是前往以色列的俄罗斯流亡者。

Four minutes earlier, two long-range antiaircraft missiles were fired during a Ukrainian air defense exercise off the Black Sea’s Crimean coast. Ukraine’s president later said that he accepted investigators’ finding that his country’s military had accidentally destroyed the Russian airliner.

航班失事四分钟前,乌克兰在黑海克里米亚半岛海岸外的防空演习中发射了两枚远程防空导弹。乌克兰总统后来表示,他认可调查人员的调查结果,即乌克兰军队意外击落了这架俄罗斯客机。

July 3, 1988: Iran Air Flight 655

1988年7月3日:伊朗航空655航班


A United States Navy warship in the Persian Gulf shot down an Iranian passenger plane that the Navy said it mistook for a jet fighter, killing all 290 people onboard. The Iran Air Airbus A300 was flying over the Strait of Hormuz while the warship, the Vincennes, a 9,600-ton missile cruiser, was being engaged by Iranian gunboats.

波斯湾一艘美国海军军舰击落了一架伊朗客机,海军称其误以为这架飞机是一架喷气式战斗机,致使机上290人全部遇难。这架伊朗航空空客A300型客机当时正飞跃霍尔木兹海峡上空,而美国9600吨的导弹巡洋舰文森尼斯号(Vincennes)当时正在应对伊朗炮舰。

The Americans, who were following radar readings, wrongly thought they saw a hostile F-14 jet fighter, and downed the plane with a surface-to-air missile.

追踪雷达读数的美国人错误地认为他们看见了敌方的F-14喷气式战斗机,并用地对空导弹击落了飞机。

Sept. 1, 1983: Korean Air Lines Flight 007

1983年9月1日:大韩航空007航班


A Soviet fighter jet shot down KAL 007 after the airliner strayed off course and over Soviet territory, killing 269 passengers and crew members and prompting several theories.

在这架客机偏离了航线并飞至苏联领土上空后,一架苏联战斗机将其击落,导致269名乘客和机组人员遇难,此事引发了多种推测。

The Soviet Union contended the jet was on a spying mission, which the United States denied. The United States, Japan and the Soviet Union searched the Sea of Okhotsk for the black box recorder but said they were unable to find it.

苏联认为这架飞机当时在执行间谍任务,但美国对此予以否认。美国、日本和苏联在鄂霍次克海搜索寻找黑匣子,但表示未能找到。

The episode evoked the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 902 in 1978, which had a different fate: All but two passengers on that flight survived.

这起空难唤起了苏联在1978年击落大韩航空902航班事件的记忆,那次空难中有两名乘客生还。

June 27, 1980: Itavia Flight 870

1980年6月27日:意大利国内航空870航班


The crash of Itavia Flight 870, known as the Ustica affair, killed all 81 people aboard and produced legions of conspiracy theories in Italy. The airliner was entering the final leg of a routine trip from Bologna, Italy, to Palermo, Sicily, when it suddenly plunged into the Tyrrhenian Sea near the small island of Ustica.

意大利国内航空870航班空难也被称作“乌斯提卡事件”,事故导致机上81人全数遇难,并在意大利引发了许多阴谋论。当时,这架客机在执飞从意大利博洛尼亚前往西西里岛巴勒莫的例行航程的最后一段时,突然坠入了乌斯蒂卡小岛附近的第勒尼安海。

In 2013, Italy’s highest court ruled that the government had to compensate the families of some of the victims, implicitly acknowledging the most widely accepted theory behind the crash: that a missile fired by a warplane had hit the twin-engine McDonnell Douglas DC-9. The court did not say where that missile came from.

2013年,意大利最高法院裁定,政府必须对部分遇难者家属予以赔偿,含蓄地认可了关于坠机事件最广为接受的理论:一架战机发射的导弹击中了这架双引擎麦道·道格拉斯DC-9客机。法院没有说明导弹的来源。

Sept. 3, 1978 — Air Rhodesia Flight 825 Feb. 12, 1979 — Air Rhodesia Flight 827

1978年9月3日:罗德西亚航空825航班;1979年2月12日:罗德西亚航空827航班


In similar episodes, rebel forces in what was then Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, brought down two aircraft within five minutes of their takeoff from Kariba.

两起事件十分类似,当时的罗得西亚(现在的津巴布韦)叛军在飞机从卡里巴起飞后的五分钟内击落了这两架客机。

Both were apparently hit by Soviet‐made, Strela heat‐seeking missiles. Altogether, more than 100 people died in the two episodes.

两架客机显然都遭受了苏联制造的Strela热导导弹袭击,两起事故共造成超过100人遇难。

Feb. 21, 1973: Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114

1973年2月21日:利比亚阿拉伯航空114航班


A Boeing 727-200 en route from Tripoli, Libya, to Cairo via Benghazi, Libya, was shot down by Israeli fighter aircraft over the Sinai desert. Just five of the 113 passengers survived.

这架波音727-200飞机从利比亚黎波里途经利比亚班加西飞往开罗,途中被以色列战斗机在西奈沙漠上空击落。113名乘客中只有五人生还。

Israel said that the plane had flown over Israeli military concentrations along the Suez Canal and over a military airfield in Sinai, which was then occupied by Israel.

以色列称,这架飞机飞过了苏伊士运河沿岸的以色列军事集中区和西奈的一个当时被以色列占领的军事机场。
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