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那些与诺贝尔奖有关的争议人物

With Many Dents to Its Image, Nobel Prize Is Hit With a Few More
那些与诺贝尔奖有关的争议人物

The Nobel Peace Prize has long been contentious, beginning with its origins in the will of Alfred Nobel, the 19th-century inventor of dynamite. But it is extraordinary that two winners are almost simultaneously battling accusations of behavior that is widely regarded as antithetical to the spirit and purpose of the award, first given in 1901.

诺贝尔和平奖长期以来争议不断,其起源——创办人19世纪炸药发明者阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔(Alfred Nobel)的遗嘱——便是一例。但不同寻常的是,有两名获奖人几乎同时面临指责,他们的所作所为被广泛认为与1901年开始颁发的该奖项的精神和宗旨背道而驰。

On Wednesday, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the Myanmar leader who won the prize in 1994, appeared before the International Court of Justice and denied accusations that her government had committed genocide against the Rohingya minority. Her defense of Myanmar at the court was a jarring contrast to her onetime identity as an intrepid champion of human rights and democracy.

周三,1994年获奖的缅甸领导人昂山素季(Aung San Suu Kyi)在国际法院出庭,并否认她的政府对罗辛亚人进行种族灭绝。她在法庭上对缅甸政府的辩护,与她曾经无畏捍卫人权和民主的身份形成鲜明对比。
 

埃塞俄比亚总理阿比·艾哈迈德(左二)周二接受诺贝尔和平奖。

And on Tuesday, the 2019 winner, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed of Ethiopia, facing accusations of a heavy-handed crackdown on political protests, skipped a news conference after his acceptance speech.

以及周二,2019年的获奖者埃塞俄比亚总理阿比·艾哈迈德(Abiy Ahmed)面临对政治抗议活动实施严厉镇压的指控,没有参加发表获奖致辞后的新闻发布会。

In some years, critics have questioned the worthiness of winners without marquee accomplishments — like the 2012 award to the European Union, for example, or the 2009 award to President Barack Obama, just months into his first term.

几年来,批评人士一直质疑那些没有卓越成就的获奖者是否配得起这个奖项——比如,2012年将奖项授予欧盟,或2009年将奖项颁发给在首个任期内刚上任几个月的奥巴马总统。

In other instances — perhaps most famously the 1973 award to Henry A. Kissinger and his North Korean counterpart, Le Duc Tho, as the Vietnam War was still raging — the track records of winners have been ridiculed. (The singer Tom Lehrer famously said that the choice of Mr. Kissinger had rendered political satire obsolete.)

又比如其他例子——最著名的也许莫过于,在越战正在进行的1973年,将奖项授予亨利·A·基辛格(Henry A. Kissinger)以及他的北越对手黎德寿(Le Duc Tho)——获奖者的事迹成为了笑柄。(歌手汤姆·莱勒[Tom Lehrer]有句名言,说基辛格的获奖让政治讽刺成为过去时。)

In the case of Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi, some critics have suggested that the criteria for selecting winners should be reassessed — including the possibility that the honor could be rescinded. Such questions are inherent to the prize regardless who is chosen, said Dr. Richard B. Gunderman, a professor at Indiana University who has written about the prize’s history.

就昂山素季来说,一些批评者建议应重新评估选择获奖者的标准,包括取消该荣誉的可能性。撰写诺奖历史的印第安纳大学教授理查德·B·贡德曼(Richard B. Gunderman)博士说,这些问题都是该奖项与生俱来的,无论是谁获奖。

“The awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize has always been fraught with peril, subject to the current drift of public opinion and political and nationalistic motives and prejudices,” Dr. Gunderman said.

贡德曼说:“诺贝尔和平奖的授予一直有很大的风险,取决于当前舆论动向以及政治和民族主义的动机与偏见。”

“Like all human judgments, the Nobel committee’s decisions are prone to error,” he said. “It should do the best it can and then live with the consequences.”

“和所有人为的判断一样,诺贝尔委员会的决定是会出错的,”他说。“它应该尽力而为,并承担后果。”

Here are some other notably contentious Nobel Peace Prize nominees and winners:

以下是其他著名的争议性诺贝尔和平奖被提名人和获奖者:

Hitler and Stalin

希特勒和斯大林


Adolf Hitler was nominated in 1939 by a member of Sweden’s Parliament, E.G.C. Brandt, who apparently meant it as a satire against the leader of Nazi Germany, and never intended the choice to be seriously considered. But the nomination created such outrage that it was quickly withdrawn.

1939年,瑞典国会议员E·G·C·勃兰特(E.G.C. Brandt)提名阿道夫·希特勒(Adolf Hitler),显然是要讽刺这位纳粹德国的领导人,并从未想要这一选项被认真考虑。然而该提名激起了人们的愤慨,以至于它被迅速撤回。

Joseph Stalin, Hitler’s nemesis and the leader of the Soviet Communist Party, was nominated twice — in 1945 and 1948 — for his efforts to end World War II. Despite Stalin’s murderous purges and pogroms, those nominations were taken in earnest.

希特勒的死对头、苏联共产党领导人约瑟夫·斯大林(Joseph Stalin)因为结束了二战,于1945和1948年被两次提名。尽管斯大林实施了残忍的大清洗和集体迫害,这些仍然是正经的提名。

Cordell Hull

科德尔·赫尔(Cordell Hull)


The American statesmen Cordell Hull won in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations. Six years earlier, as President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s secretary of state, he took steps that led Roosevelt to deny permission for 950 Jewish refugees aboard the liner St. Louis, fleeing Nazi persecution, to seek asylum in the United States.

美国政治人物科德尔·赫尔因在建立联合国中的作用于1945年获奖。六年后,作为富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)总统的国务卿,他的一些作为致使罗斯福拒绝了圣路易斯邮轮上950名逃离纳粹迫害的犹太难民的美国庇护请求。

Many of the passengers on the trip, known as the Voyage of the Damned, later died in the Holocaust.

这段被称为苦海余生(Voyage of the Damned)的旅途中的许多乘客,后来死于犹太人大屠杀。

Yasir Arafat

亚西尔·阿拉法特(Yasir Arafat)


The chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization shared the 1994 prize with the Israeli leaders Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres for the Oslo Accords, still widely regarded as the basis for a peace process. But many critics assailed the choice of Mr. Arafat because of his role in acts of terrorism against Israelis.

这位巴勒斯坦解放组织主席与以色列领导人伊扎克·拉宾(Yitzhak Rabin)和希蒙·佩雷斯(Shimon Peres)因达成奥斯陆协议——被认为是以巴和平进程的基础——而共同获得了1994年和平奖。然而,由于阿拉法特在以色列恐怖主义行为中扮演的角色,许多批评人士抨击了这个选择。

Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho

亨利·基辛格和黎德寿


The 1973 prize was awarded to Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger and the North Vietnam statesman Le Duc Tho for having negotiated a cease-fire in the Vietnam War.

1973年的奖项被授予给国务卿亨利·A·基辛格和北越政治人物黎德寿,因为他们在越战中达成了停火协议。

Many critics of the war — which would not be over for two more years — ridiculed the choice of Mr. Kissinger, and his Vietnamese counterpart refused to accept the award on grounds that he United States had violated the cease-fire.

越战(之后又打了两年)的许多批评者嘲笑对基辛格的选择,而他的越南对手则以美国违反停火协议为由,拒绝接受该奖。
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