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22 Things That Happened for the First Time in 2019

1. Scientists release first-ever image of black hole

1. 科学家发布第一张黑洞图片

For the first time, astronomers released an image of a black hole — something that has eluded scientists for more than half a century. An international effort involving eight radio observatories across four continents observed the black hole located in Messier 87, a large galaxy some 55 million light-years away from Earth, over 10 days in April 2017. But it took two years of computer analysis to piece together the image, which was released in April this year.



2. New treatment for peanut allergies

2. 花生过敏的新疗法

The Food and Drug Administration has recommended the approval of the first drug for treating peanut allergies in children. As of 2017, there were about 1.2 million children in the United States with allergies to peanuts, some of them life-threatening. The new drug, Palforzia, is supposed to reduce the risks of a fatal peanut-allergy reaction in children ages 4 to 17.


3. Aston Martin unveils its first-ever electric car

3. 阿斯顿·马丁推出首款电动汽车

The world may not be enough, but James Bond is poised to do his part to help keep it green. Aston Martin, the British maker of the sports car that the secret agent drives onscreen, revealed its first electric car, the Rapide E, at the Shanghai Auto Show in April. The car, which costs $326,000, can go from 0 to 60 miles per hour in under four seconds and has a maximum speed of 155 m.p.h. — plenty fast for all those car chases.

征服世界也许是还不够,但詹姆斯·邦德(James Bond)随时准备为环保尽自己的一份力量。为这位荧幕特工提供座驾的英国车厂阿斯顿·马丁(Aston Martin)在四月的上海车展上展示了其首款电动汽车Rapide E。这款售价32.6万美元的车0到60英里加速不到四秒,最高时速为每小时155英里——对于邦德飙车来说足够了。

4. Rihanna is first woman of color to head a fashion house at LVMH

4. 蕾哈娜是首位引领LVMH路威酩轩集团旗下时装公司的有色女性

Rihanna’s Fenty brand has joined fashion forces with LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton, the world’s largest luxury group, and in doing so, the artist has accomplished many firsts. She is the first woman to originate a brand at LVMH and the first woman of color at the head of a fashion house there. Fenty is also the first brand that earned its chops on the social media stage to be backed by one of the major luxury conglomerates.

蕾哈娜(Rihanna)的品牌Fenty入驻全球最大的奢侈品集团路威酩轩集团(LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton),这意味着在许多方面开创先河。她是第一个在LVMH创立品牌的女性,也是第一位在该集团掌管一个时尚品牌的有色女性。Fenty也是第一个在社交媒体平台上赢得赞誉的大型奢侈品集团注资品牌。

5. A ban on facial recognition software

5. 人脸识别软件被禁

San Francisco became the first major American city to ban the use of facial recognition software by the police and other government agencies. Officials and civil liberty groups cited growing unease about the potential abuse of the technology, which is popular among law enforcement and has been used to help identify suspects involved in a range of offenses, from petty crimes to mass shootings. Critics of the ban say the city should be doing more to enact laws that enable police to use the technology responsibly.


6. Jeff Koons sculpture breaks auction record

6. 杰夫·昆斯雕塑打破拍卖纪录

“Rabbit,” a stainless-steel sculpture the artist Jeff Koons created in 1986, set a world record when it sold for $91.1 million, including fees, in May, making it the most expensive work sold at auction by a living artist. The art dealer Robert E. Mnuchin, the father of Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, purchased the sculpture for an undisclosed client.

艺术家杰夫·昆斯(Jeff Koons)于1986年创作的不锈钢雕塑《兔子》(Rabbit)于5月以9110万美元的价格(含佣金)售出,创造了世界纪录,使其成为拍价最高的在世艺术家作品。艺术品经销商、美国财政部长史蒂夫·马努钦(Steve Mnuchin)的父亲罗伯特·E·马努钦(Robert E. Mnuchin)受一位匿名客户所托购买了这座雕塑。

7. Rare albino panda spotted in China

7. 中国发现稀有白化病熊猫

An albino panda, the first of its kind to be captured on camera, was spotted at a natural reserve in the Sichuan Province of China. Although brown-and-white pandas have been observed in northwestern China, this is the first time an all-white panda has been recorded.


8. Mexico’s cultural minister calls out design house for cultural appropriation

8. 墨西哥文化部长指责时尚品牌文化挪用

The cultural minister of Mexico accused the New York-based luxury brand Carolina Herrera of cultural appropriation after the design house unveiled a resort 2020 collection earlier this year that featured embroidery and prominent patterns used by indigenous communities in Mexico. Although fashion history is rife with accusations of cultural appropriation and insensitivity, this is the first time a government has entered the fray.

墨西哥文化部长指责纽约奢侈品牌卡罗琳娜·海莱娜(Carolina Herrera)文化挪用,这家时尚品牌今年早些时候推出了2020度假系列,其中包含了墨西哥原住民社群使用的刺绣和显著图案。尽管时尚史上充斥着对文化挪用和缺乏文化敏感的指责,但这是第一次由政府介入争论。

9. China makes historic first landing on far side of the moon

9. 中国进行史上首次月球背面着陆

China’s Chang’e-4 spacecraft landed on the moon in early January with the mission to explore the terrain on the moon’s mysterious far side. The landing marks China’s second successful lunar mission. Another attempt at a lunar landing — this time, by India, in September — fizzled, when communication between mission control and the spacecraft fell silent within its being 1.3 miles of the moon’s surface.


10. Female imams lead prayer service for first time in France

10. 法国举行首次由女性阿訇主持的礼拜

Two female imams led prayers in front of a mixed-gender congregation in September, marking the first time women have led services in France. The women, who converted to Islam about 10 years ago, are striving to build a more modern and inclusive version of Islam.


11. Compasses in Greenwich point to true north

11. 格林尼治的罗盘指向真北

For the first time in 360 years, true north and compass north aligned in Greenwich, England. Earth has two north poles: a geographic north and a magnetic north. Most of the time, compasses don’t point to true north; instead, they point to the Earth’s magnetic pole, which shifts because of the planet’s magnetic liquid core.


12. For the first time, the U.S. sells rice to China

12. 美国首次向中国出售大米

A private importer from China purchased roughly 40 metric tons of rice from the California-based Sun Valley Rice in July, a first. China is the world’s largest rice grower and consumer, producing almost 150 million metric tons of rice in 2018-19.

一家来自中国的私营进口商于7月首次从美国加州的太阳谷大米(Sun Valley Rice)购买了约40顿大米。中国是世界上最大的稻米生产国和消费国,在2018-19年度生产了近1.5亿吨大米。

13. Pigs seen using tools for the first time

13. 第一次观察到猪对工具的使用

A study published in Mammalian Biology this year reported that an endangered pig species, the Visayan warty pig, was recorded using tools. A conservation ecologist witnessed a female pig using a stick inside her snout to dig in her enclosure at a zoo in Paris.

今年发表在《哺乳动物生物学》(Mammalian Biology)上的一项研究报告称观察到卷毛野猪(一种濒临灭绝的猪)对工具的使用。一位生态保护学家在巴黎一个动物园里目睹了一只母猪在围栏内用嘴拾起一根棍子挖土。

14. World’s biggest airplane takes first flight ever

14. 世界上最大的飞机首航

The Stratolaunch, the world’s biggest airplane, took its maiden voyage in April in California’s Mojave Desert. The aircraft, which weighs 500,000 pounds and has two fuselages, is designed to launch rockets into orbit while airborne, but it went sans rockets for its first flight. Stratolaunch was founded by Paul Allen, the late Microsoft co-founder, in 2011.

世界上最大的飞机——平流层发射巨型双身飞机(Stratolaunch),于4月在加利福尼亚的莫哈韦沙漠首飞。这架飞机重达50万磅,有两个机身,该飞机项目由已故的微软联合创始人保罗·艾伦(Paul Allen)于2011年创立。

15. A kidney is delivered by drone

15. 无人机运送肾脏

For the first time, a specially built drone delivered a donated kidney that was later used in a successful transplant surgery at the University of Maryland Medical Center. The drone was equipped with complex monitoring equipment, backup batteries and even a parachute to make the 2.8-mile flight. While unmanned aircraft may be the ideal delivery system for transplant organs, there are still challenges to overcome — such as contending with busy airspace and federal regulations — before their use becomes routine.


16. Researchers eliminate H.I.V. from infected mice

16. 研究人员从受感染的老鼠身上清除HIV

Researchers in the United States say they have eliminated H.I.V. from infected mice for the first time, marking yet another promising step toward a cure. The treatment involved the administration of antiretroviral drugs in a therapy known as LASER, followed by the use of the Crispr gene-editing tool to remove any remaining H.I.V. from the mice’s DNA, resulting in one-third of the mice testing H.I.V.-free.


17. A milk chocolate icon got a new look

17. 牛奶巧克力图标改换新颜

For the first time in the company’s history, Hershey changed the look of its famous chocolate bar, replacing its logo with popular emojis for a limited time. The confection was first sold in 1900.


18. A royal first on Instagram

18. 王室成员首次在Instagram上亮相

Queen Elizabeth II posted for the first time on Instagram in March, sharing a photograph of a letter written to Prince Albert — the husband of Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth’s great-great-grandfather — in 1843 that was part of an exhibit at London’s Science Museum.


19. First proven malaria vaccine begins African rollout

19. 首例证实有效的疟疾疫苗开始在非洲推广

The world’s first proven malaria vaccine was introduced in April in Malawi, the first of three African countries to partake in the landmark pilot program. The RTS,S vaccine, which has been shown to prevent malaria in 4 out of 10 cases, was first developed in 1987, but it took more than three decades and $700 million for it to be deployed on a large scale.


20. New dinosaur species unearthed in Japan and Canada


Two new species of dinosaurs were discovered this year in Japan and Canada. According to Hokkaido University in Japan, researchers unearthed a new type of duck-billed herbivorous dinosaur, the largest ever found in the island nation. And in Canada, a new type of flying dinosaur — its scientific name translates to “frozen dragon of the north wind” — with a wingspan the size of a small plane was discovered.

今年在日本和加拿大发现了两种新的恐龙。据日本北海道大学(Hokkaido University)称,研究人员发现了一种新型鸭嘴龙科食草性恐龙,是这个岛国发现的最大恐龙。在加拿大,人们发现了一种新型翼龙——学名翻译为“北风冻结龙”——翼展有一架小型飞机那么大。

21. Saudi Arabia opens up for tourism

21. 沙特阿拉伯开放旅游业

Saudi Arabia has made visas available for foreign tourists interested in visiting for nonreligious reasons, a first for the conservative kingdom. The visas are widely viewed as part of the country’s attempt to shift away from its economic dependence on oil, as well as its effort to modernize and counter critics who are skeptical of its human rights record. Under the plan, foreign female tourists are not required to wear the abaya — the head-to-toe covering that is mandatory for Saudi women when appearing in public — but they are expected to dress modestly.


22. Two women make historic NASA spacewalk

22. 两名女性进行历史性太空行走

Astronauts Christina Koch and Jessica Meir completed the first all-woman spacewalk in NASA’s history in October. They headed outside of the International Space Station to repair a power controller. Women weren’t allowed to join NASA’s astronaut program until 1978.

10月,宇航员克里斯蒂娜·科赫(Christina Koch)和杰西卡·梅尔(Jessica Meir)完成了美国宇航局历史上首次完全由女性参加的太空行走。她们前往国际空间站外修理电源控制器。女性直到1978年才被允许加入NASA的宇航员项目。
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