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有关美国击毙基地组织头目的五大关键问题

The Killing of Ayman al-Zawahri: What We Know
有关美国击毙基地组织头目的五大关键问题

The United States announced on Monday that it had killed Ayman al-Zawahri in a drone strike in Afghanistan, ­ending a 21-year-manhunt for the terrorist leader, who was instrumental in the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, and who took command of Al Qaeda after Osama bin Laden’s death.

美国周一宣布,它在阿富汗进行的一次无人机袭击中击毙了艾曼·扎瓦希里,对这名恐怖分子头目长达21年的追捕就此划上了句号。扎瓦希里曾在2001年9月11日的恐怖袭击中发挥了重要作用,并在奥萨马·本·拉登死后掌管了基地组织的指挥权。

The killing of al-Zawahri, who was one of the world’s most wanted and feared terrorists, is considered a major victory for the Biden administration.

扎瓦希里是世界上最让人担心的恐怖分子之一,也是世界头号通缉犯之一,成功击杀他被视为拜登政府的重大胜利。
 

艾曼·扎瓦希里在2006年的一段视频中说。他为这个恐怖组织提供了政治头脑和方向;奥萨马·本·拉登提供了金钱、威望和个人魅力。

But the strike has also raised questions about the terrorist leader’s presence in Afghanistan one year after President Biden withdrew American forces from the country, clearing the way for the Taliban to retake control. Here is what we know so far about the attack, who al-Zawahri was, and the consequences of his killing.

但这次袭击行动也引发了围绕这名恐怖分子头目出现在阿富汗的种种思考。一年前,拜登宣布从这里撤军,为塔利班重新夺回对阿富汗的控制权铺平了道路。下面是我们目前对这次袭击的了解,以及扎瓦希里是谁、他的死会造成什么后果等问题的回答。

What do we know about the attack?

我们对这次袭击了解多少?


Al-Zawahri was killed by the C.I.A. in an early-morning drone strike over the weekend in the Afghan capital, Kabul, American officials said. He was targeted at a house in the Sherpur area, a wealthy downtown neighborhood that once housed dozens of Western embassies and now is home to some high-ranking Taliban officials.

美国官员说,中央情报局周末清晨在阿富汗首都喀布尔进行的一次无人机袭击中击毙了扎瓦希里。他是在谢尔布尔区的一所房子里被击中的,那是一个富裕社区,位于喀布尔市中心,曾是几十个西方国家大使馆的所在地,现在住着一些塔利班高级官员。

Mr. Biden, in a nationwide address delivered from a balcony at the White House, said that he had authorized the strike two days earlier. “Now justice has been delivered and this terrorist leader is no more,” he said.

拜登在白宫的一个阳台上对全国发表了讲话。他在讲话中说,他在两天前批准了这次袭击。“现在,正义已得到了伸张,这名恐怖分子头目已不复存在,”他说。

The operation to kill al-Zawahri had been in motion for months. American intelligence agencies located the safe house where he was hiding earlier this year, after intelligence sources learned that his family had moved there. The C.I.A. then tracked his movements until they received authorization for the strike, and targeted him on a balcony with two Hellfire missiles, officials said.

以杀死扎瓦希里为目标的行动几个月前就开始了。今年早些时候,美国情报机构找到了他的藏身之处,此前情报人员获知他的家人搬进了那里。美国官员说,那之后,中情局一直在跟踪他的行动,直到他们获得了袭击授权,当扎瓦希里出现在一个阳台上时,用两枚地狱火导弹将其击毙。

American officials said that nobody else was killed in the attack, including members of his family or any nearby civilians. Taliban security forces have restricted access to the blast site and there has not yet been independent confirmation that no civilians were killed.

美国官员说,没有其他人在这次袭击中丧生,包括他的家人或附近居住的平民。塔利班安全部队已限制外人进入袭击现场,没有平民丧生的消息目前尚未得到第三方的独立确认。

Who was Ayman al-Zawahri?

艾曼·扎瓦希里是何许人也?


Al-Zawahri, who was killed at 71, was an Egyptian-born doctor — a surgeon who had committed to violent revolution at the age of 15, when he helped form a militant cell seeking to overthrow the Egyptian government.

扎瓦希里被击毙时71岁,他在埃及出生,曾是一名外科医生,15岁时就致力于暴力革命,当时他帮助组建了一个试图推翻埃及政府的激进组织。

He emerged as a master of terrorism and was widely considered the architect of the Sept. 11 attacks against the United States in 2001.

他在恐怖主义方面堪称大师,并以此为人知晓,外界普遍认为他是2001年9月11日对美恐怖袭击的策划者。

Many counterterrorism experts considered him the intellectual spine of Al Qaeda. Al-Zawahri was Bin Laden’s personal physician. The men became allies, pooling their resources to create an instrument of mass murder to hurt Western powers and governments they supported. Al-Zawahri supplied the political acumen and direction; bin Laden provided money, prestige and charisma.

许多反恐专家认为他是基地组织的军师。扎瓦希里曾是本·拉登的私人医生。两人后来结为盟友,为了给西方国家和这些国家支持的政府制造伤害,他们把各自的资源整合起来,创造出大规模杀伤手段。扎瓦希里提供的是政治智慧和方向;本·拉登提供的是资金、声望和魅力。

The legacy of their efforts took an uncertain turn 11 years ago after bin Laden was killed in a raid by a U.S. Navy SEAL team in Pakistan. Many believed Al Qaeda could not survive his absence. But al-Zawahri took up the mantle and managed to keep together the group’s disparate global franchises even with the rise of the Islamic State militant group and as Al Qaeda branches in Yemen and West Africa’s Sahel region exerted more independence and authority, officials said.

11年前,美国海军海豹突击队在巴基斯坦对本·拉登发动突袭将其击毙后,两人的合作留下的遗产将何去何从变得不确定起来。许多人曾认为,基地组织在本·拉登死后不会继续存在下去。但官员表示,扎瓦希里继承了本·拉登的未竟事业,设法将基地组织在全球的各个分支维系在一起,甚至是在伊斯兰国激进组织崛起、也门和西非萨赫勒地区的基地组织分支越来越独立、影响力越来越大的情况下。

What was he doing in Afghanistan?

扎瓦希里在阿富汗做什么?


The attack against al-Zawahri is the first known counterterrorism strike in Afghanistan since Mr. Biden withdrew American forces almost one year ago, nearly 20 years after the United States invaded the country to drive Al Qaeda out.

美国为了把基地组织赶出阿富汗而入侵该国近20年后,拜登在不到一年前将美军撤出。袭击扎瓦希里的行动是美国撤军以来首次已知的反恐行动。

Officials have said that al-Zawahri had moved back to Afghanistan earlier this year, after American forces withdrew.

官员表示,美国撤军后,扎瓦希里于今年早些时候回到了阿富汗。

Al-Zawahri was long believed to have been living in Pakistan. His safe haven in Kabul is an indication of Al Qaeda’s continued use of facilities, houses, buildings and compounds between Afghanistan and its neighbor.

据信,扎瓦希里之前一直住在巴基斯坦。他在喀布尔的藏身之处表明,基地组织继续使用其在阿富汗及其邻国的设施、房屋、建筑和建筑群。

Al Qaeda had a strong presence in the country when the Taliban last ruled it — the key reason that the U.S. invaded in 2001, in the wake of the Sept. 11 attacks.

塔利班上次统治阿富汗时,基地组织曾在该国有很大影响力——这是美国在“9·11”恐怖袭击事件后于2001年入侵阿富汗的关键原因。

Throughout much of the war, Qaeda fighters were largely seen as battlefield advisers among their insurgent brethren and experts at roadside bomb construction and suicide attacks.

在阿富汗战争的大部分时间里,据信基地组织成员的大部分作用是为他们发动叛乱的同道兄弟当战场顾问,他们是制造路边炸弹和自杀式袭击的专家。

But some Taliban factions had a closer relationship with the terrorist organization than others — especially the Haqqani network, whose senior leadership aided bin Laden during the Soviet-Afghan war.

但一些塔利班派系与基地组织有更密切的关系,尤其是哈卡尼派系,其高层领导曾在苏联-阿富汗战争期间帮助过本·拉登。

In his speech on Monday, Mr. Biden said al-Zawahri’s killing validated his commitment to continue counterterrorism operations despite his decision to remove U.S. troops from Afghanistan.

拜登在周一的讲话中说,击毙扎瓦希里的行动证实了他将继续反恐行动的承诺,尽管他做出了从阿富汗撤军的决定。

“I made the decision that after 20 years of war, the United States no longer needed thousands of boots on the ground in Afghanistan, to protect America from terrorists who seek to do us harm,” he said. “And I made a promise to the American people that we would continue to conduct effective counterterrorism operations in Afghanistan and beyond. We’ve done just that.”

“我做出了决定,在经历了20年的战争之后,为了保护美国不受那些试图伤害我们的恐怖分子的伤害,美国已不再需要在阿富汗有上千名地面部队,”他说。“我曾向美国人民承诺,我们会继续在阿富汗及其他地区开展有效的反恐行动。我们刚完成的就是这项工作。”

Didn’t the Taliban promise to cut ties with Al Qaeda?

塔利班不是承诺要与基地组织断绝关系吗?


A deal between the United States and the Taliban, the Doha Agreement, was signed in February 2020.

美国和塔利班于2020年2月签署了“多哈协议”。

The agreement promised the withdrawal of all NATO troops from Afghanistan, conditioned in part on a commitment from the Taliban to keep groups like Al Qaeda from using Afghanistan as a base for attacks on the West.

协议承诺从阿富汗撤出所有北约部队,部分条件是塔利班承诺不让基地组织等恐怖组织利用阿富汗作为袭击西方的基地。

Western officials hoped the deal would sever ties between the Taliban and international terrorist networks.

西方官员希望该协议将切断塔利班和国际恐怖主义网络之间的联系。

Although the Taliban have said repeatedly that they were adhering to the Doha terms, analysts have warned that groups including Al Qaeda and Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, or the Pakistani Taliban, had found refuge in Afghanistan since the Taliban’s takeover last year.

尽管塔利班一再表示他们会遵守多哈协议,但分析人士警告,自从塔利班去年接管政权以来,包括基地组织和巴基斯坦塔利班运动在内的组织已经在阿富汗找到了庇护之地。

In June, a United Nations report warned that Al Qaeda had found “increased freedom of action” in Afghanistan since the Taliban seized power. The report noted that Al Qaeda leaders were possibly living in Kabul, and that an uptick in public statements by al-Zawahri suggested that he was able to lead more effectively after the takeover.

今年6月,联合国的一份报告警告,自从塔利班夺取政权以来,基地组织在阿富汗“行动更加自由”。报告指出,基地组织领导人可能住在喀布尔,扎瓦希里的公开声明增加表明他在掌权后能够更有效地领导这个组织。

Al-Zawahri’s presence in Kabul will only further call into question the Taliban’s commitment to their end of the peace deal.

扎瓦希里在喀布尔的存在只会让人进一步怀疑塔利班对和平协议的承诺。

How have Afghans reacted to the strike?

阿富汗人对这次袭击作何反应?


The Taliban on Tuesday strongly condemned the drone attack, calling it a “violation of international principles and the Doha agreement” but did not confirm or respond to the reported killing of al-Zawahri.

塔利班星期二强烈谴责无人机袭击,称其“违反国际原则和多哈协议”,但没有证实或回应扎瓦希里被击毙的报道。

“Such actions are a repetition of the failed experiences of the past years and are against the interests of the U.S.A., Afghanistan and the region,” a top Taliban official, Zabihullah Mujahid, said in a statement.

塔利班高级官员扎比胡拉·穆贾希德在声明中说,“这些行动是对过去几年失败经验的重复,不符合美国、阿富汗和该地区的利益。”

The attack, in a busy neighborhood, alarmed civilians across Kabul, who responded with anger and helplessness. Nearly a year after the Taliban seized power, their country is on the verge of economic collapse.

袭击发生在一个繁忙的街区,震惊了喀布尔各地的平民,他们的反应是愤怒和无助。在塔利班夺取政权近一年后,他们的国家正处于经济崩溃的边缘。

“I wish we had this power to defend our country,” said Ezatullah, a 29-year-old from Logar Province who had traveled to Kabul to receive his marriage license and whose full name is being withheld for security reasons.

29岁的埃扎图拉来自洛加尔省,他来喀布尔领取结婚证,出于安全考虑,他没有透露全名。“我希望我们有保卫国家的力量,”他说。

“The people can’t show any reaction or anger because they cannot say what they want to and they have economic problems,” he said. “Everyone is busy finding a piece of bread for themselves.”

“人们不能表现出任何反应或愤怒,因为他们不能说出他们想说的话,而且他们的经济状况也不好,”他说。“每个人都在忙着为自己找一块面包。”

Munir, 57, who lost his job after the Taliban came to power and whose full name is also being withheld, said that al-Zawahri’s presence in Kabul was a clear indication that the Doha Agreement had been broken.

今年57岁的穆尼尔在塔利班掌权后失去了工作,他也没有透露全名。他说,扎瓦希里出现在喀布尔清楚地表明,多哈协议已经被破坏。

“The violation of the Doha Agreement is to the detriment of the Afghan people; the Afghan people are too weak to react to the attacks,” he said, adding that the people of Afghanistan “have always been victims of foreign and domestic policies.”

“违反多哈协议损害了阿富汗人民的利益;阿富汗人民太软弱,无法对袭击作出反应,”他还说,阿富汗人民“一直是外交和国内政策的受害者”。
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