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“一切都没了”:俄罗斯炮火下,一场全球粮食危机正在逼近

‘Everything Was Destroyed’: War Hits Ukraine’s Farms
“一切都没了”:俄罗斯炮火下,一场全球粮食危机正在逼近

The farmer was working in his field on a recent morning when a neighbor called to tell him that his warehouses had been shelled. He rushed back and found them on fire and one of his workers lying on the ground with shrapnel lodged in his head.

最近的一个早晨,一位农民正在他的地里干活,邻居打电话告诉他,他的仓库遭到了炮击。他冲了回来,发现仓库着火了,他的一名农工躺在地上,弹片嵌进头部。

“In one word, it was destruction,” said the farmer, Yuriy Gumanenko, 48. “Everything was destroyed into pieces.”

“用一个词形容就是毁灭,”48岁的农民尤里·古马年科说,“全都被炸成了碎片。”
 

上个月,一枚俄罗斯导弹袭击了乌克兰首都基辅以北的农场。

The farmworker, 62, was hospitalized and had little chance of surviving, Mr. Gumanenko said. Three of Mr. Gumanenko’s four tractors were destroyed, and so were the roofs of his warehouses. The wheat he was hoping to sell and many of his seeds were lost.

古马年科说那位62岁的农工被送去了医院,但活下来的可能性微乎其微。古马年科的四辆拖拉机有三辆被毁,他的仓库屋顶也遭到损坏。他本指望能卖掉的小麦和许多种子都没了。

“All my life went to growing my farm,” he said, adding, “Now it’s all gone.”

“我一辈子在我的农场种地,”他说,“现在什么都没了。”

In the past six weeks, Russian shells have destroyed Ukrainian cities, homes, hospitals and schools. But the war has also reached deep into the fertile plains of a region known as Europe’s breadbasket, paralyzing harvests, destroying granaries and crops, and bringing potentially devastating consequences to a country that produces a large share of the world’s grain.

过去六周里,俄罗斯的炮弹摧毁了乌克兰的城市、房屋、医院和学校。但战争也深入到乌克兰的肥沃平原,这里被称为欧洲的粮仓。战争导致无法收割,摧毁粮仓和农作物,并给一个在生产世界相当一部分粮食的国家带来潜在的毁灭性后果。

Ukraine has already lost at least $1.5 billion in grain exports since the war began, the country’s deputy agriculture minister said recently. And Russia, the world’s leading grain exporter, has been largely unable to export food because of international sanctions.

乌克兰农业副部长最近表示,自战争开始以来,该国已经损失了至少15亿美元的粮食出口。由于国际制裁,作为世界主要粮食出口国的俄罗斯在很大程度上也无法出口粮食。

The combination is creating a global food crisis “beyond anything we’ve seen since World War II,” the chief of the United Nations World Food Program has warned.

联合国世界粮食计划署负责人警告说,这两种情况结合起来正在造成一场“自二战以来我们从未见过”的全球粮食危机。

In Ukraine, warehouses are filled with grain that cannot be exported. Russia has blocked access to the Black Sea, Ukraine’s main export route, cargo trains face logistical hurdles, and trucking is stymied because most truck drivers are men aged 18 to 60 who are not allowed to leave the country and cannot drive agricultural exports across the border.

在乌克兰,仓库里堆满了无法出口的谷物。俄罗斯封锁了进入黑海的通道,这是乌克兰主要的出口路线。货运列车面临后勤障碍,卡车运输受到阻碍,因为大多数卡车司机是18至60岁的男性,他们不被允许离开该国,无法将出口农产品运出边境。

Ukraine has also banned some grain exports to ensure that it has enough food to feed its people.

乌克兰还禁止了一些粮食出口,以确保有足够的粮食养活本国人民。

On Tuesday, the Agriculture Ministry said that six large granaries had been destroyed by Russian shelling. Farmers say they face shortages of fuel and fertilizer, and that some of their workers have gone to the battlefield.

周二,农业部表示,俄罗斯炮击摧毁了六个大型粮仓。农民们说他们面临燃料和化肥短缺的问题,他们的一些农工已经奔赴战场。

Some farmers have been pushed off their lands by the fighting, with shells and rockets destroying their machines, wounding their workers and killing their cattle.

战争致使一些农民被赶出他们的土地,炮弹和火箭炮摧毁了他们的机器,炸伤了他们的农工,导致他们的牲畜死亡。

“My farm has turned to ruins,” said Grigoriy Tkachenko, a farmer in the village of Lukashivka, near the northern Ukrainian city of Chernihiv. “There is almost nothing left.”

“我的农场变成了废墟,”乌克兰北部城市切尔尼戈夫附近的卢卡希夫卡村的农民格里戈里·特卡琴科说。“几乎什么都没有了。”

His farm was shelled on a recent evening at milking time, he said. A rocket struck the milking hall, and the workers ran to another building for shelter. When the attack ended, Mr. Tkachenko’s farm had been reduced to rubble and scores of cows and small lambs lay dead.

他说,他的农场在最近某天晚间挤奶时遭到炮击。一枚火箭炮击中了挤奶间,农工们跑到另一栋楼避难。袭击结束时,特卡琴科的农场已被夷为平地,地上躺着数十头死去的奶牛和小羊羔。

The farm — his cattle, warehouses and machinery — was the product of his life’s work. After working in collective farms when Ukraine was under Soviet rule, Mr. Tkachenko bought about 15 acres of land and seven cows in 2005. Over the years, he expanded his operation to 3,700 acres and 170 cows, also producing corn, wheat, sunflowers and potatoes.

农场——他的牛、仓库和机器——是他毕生的心血。乌克兰处于苏联统治之时,特卡琴科曾在集体农场工作,2005年,他买下了约六公顷的土地和七头奶牛。这些年来,他把经营规模扩大到了约1500公顷,奶牛变成了170头,另外还种植了玉米、小麦、向日葵和土豆。

“What we built over decades,” he said, “they destroyed it over just a few days.”

“我们几十年累积下的产业,”他说,“他们只用了几天时间就毁光了。”

Farmland covers 70 percent of the country and agricultural products were Ukraine’s top export, making up nearly 10 percent of its gross domestic product. Ukraine was one of the world’s main exporters of corn and wheat and the biggest exporter of sunflower oil.

农业用地占到了乌克兰全国面积的70%,农产品占其国内生产总值的10%,是乌克兰最重要的出口产品。乌克兰是全球玉米和小麦的主要出口国,也是葵花籽油的最大出口国。

The country now has 13 million tons of соrn and 3.8 million tons of wheat that it cannot export using its usual routes, primarily by sea, the deputy agriculture minister, Taras Vysotsky, said last week.

该国农业部副部长塔拉斯·维索茨基上周表示,目前,乌克兰有1300万吨和玉米和380万吨小麦无法通过正常路线(主要是海运)出口。

One farmer in the Kherson region of southern Ukraine said that he had 1,500 tons of grain and 1,000 tons of corn sitting in storage on his farm.

乌克兰南部城市赫尔松的一位农民说,他的农场里积压了1500吨谷物和1000吨玉米。

About 400 miles northwest, near Chernihiv, Ivan Yakub fled his farm after the area was occupied by Russia, leaving 100 tons of corn and wheat in his warehouse.

在赫尔松西北方向640多公里的切尔尼戈夫附近,伊万·雅库布在俄军占领该地区后逃离了他的农场,他的仓库里还留有100吨玉米和小麦。

Farming has become impossible in several areas where there is heavy fighting or Russian occupation.

在一些战斗激烈或是被俄军占领的地区,农耕已经不可能进行。

Farmers also worry whether they will be able to sow crops this spring, putting next season’s crops at risk. On Thursday, Ukraine’s prime minister, Denis Shmygal, said that the government expected a 20 percent decrease in crops to be sown this spring.

农民们也在担忧这个春季可能无法播种,导致下季作物也面临风险。周四,乌克兰总理丹尼斯·什梅加尔表示,政府预计今年春耕作物将减少20%。

Russian forces have mined some farmland, blown up machines and destroyed fuel reserves, an effort, Ukrainian authorities say, to disrupt planting.

俄军在一些农田布设了地雷,炸毁机器,并摧毁燃料储备,乌克兰当局声称此举就是为了扰乱耕种。

“I don’t know if I will sow,” said Oleksandr Kyrychyshyn, a farmer in the village of Blahodativka, in the Kherson region. “They told us that every car that drives out into the field will be shot.”

“我不确定是否还会播种,”来自赫尔松地区布拉霍达提夫卡村的农民亚历山大·基里奇申说。“他们告诉我们,每一辆开到野外的车都会成为靶子。”

Mr. Yakub, who fled his farm near Chernihiv, still wakes up at 6 a.m. out of habit. He makes tea, but cannot reach his tractor and fertilize his land to prepare for sowing sunflower seeds. His fields, under Russian occupation, remain fallow.

雅库布逃离了切尔尼戈夫附近的农场,他仍然习惯每天早上六点起床。他会泡好茶,但却用不了他的拖拉机,也不能给他的土地施肥,为播种葵花籽做好准备。在俄军占领下,他的土地仍处于休耕状态。

“I paid for the seeds but I can’t put them in the ground,” he said. “I’m just a farmer, I want to grow what people need.”

“虽然买了种子,但却不能把它们种在地里,”他说。“我只是个农民,只想种植人们需要的产品。”

In less affected areas farmers have started to sow, but many lack fuel, fertilizer and seeds because ports have been blocked and imports from Russia and Belarus halted. A government survey last month found that farmers had 20 percent of the fuel needed for the spring sowing.

在受战争影响较轻的地方,农民已经开始播种,但由于港口被封锁,从俄罗斯和白俄罗斯的进口也被暂停,许多农民缺少燃料、化肥和种子。上个月的一项政府调查发现,国内农民所拥有的燃料仅为春耕需求量的20%。

Anatoly Guyvaronsky, who represents the Dnipro region in Ukraine’s association of farmers and private landowners, said that his grain truck driver and grain elevator operator had gone to fight in the war.

乌克兰农民和私人土地所有者协会的第聂伯罗地区代表阿纳托利·盖瓦隆斯基说,他手下的粮食运输司机和谷物升降机操作员都去打仗了。

The Ukrainian government has temporarily exempted agriculture workers from military duties, but some have chosen to fight. Women and children are now helping in the fields, Mr. Guyvaronsky said.

乌克兰政府暂时免除了农业劳动者的兵役,但仍有一些人选择参加战斗。盖瓦隆斯基说,妇女和儿童现在都在地里帮忙。

Around Ukraine, farmers have shown great resilience and a determination to do everything in their power to sow and feed their people and the army.

乌克兰各地的农民都展现了极大的韧性和决心,愿尽一切努力播种,为百姓和军队供应粮食。

Mr. Tkachenko, whose farm was destroyed in a Russian attack last month, had stayed on his land as long as possible, feeding Ukrainian soldiers and the local population with meat, milk and potatoes.

特卡琴科的农场在上个月的一次俄军袭击中被毁,在那之前,他一直尽可能在田里劳作,为乌克兰士兵和当地百姓提供肉类、牛奶和土豆。

He, his wife, daughter and six grandchildren slept for a few hours a night in the cellar where they put up potatoes and preserves.

每天晚上,他和妻子、女儿、以及六个孙辈就在存放土豆和腌菜的地窖里睡几个小时。

“This is our land, this is our farm, this is our village,” Mr. Tkachenko said. “Until the last moment we wanted to be with our people.”

“这是我们的土地,我们的农场,我们的村庄,”特卡琴科说。“直到最后一刻,我们都要和自己人待在一起。”

They fled after their farm was attacked but returned last week, as soon as he heard that the Russian Army had withdrawn by a few miles.

农场遭到袭击后,他们选择逃走,但上周一听说俄军撤退了一段距离,他们就又回来了。

“Our land is our land,” he said in a phone call as he drove home. “Everyone will rush back to get back to work as soon as they can.”

“我们的土地就是我们的,”他在开车回家的路上接受电话采访时说。“只要有机会,大家都会尽快回来干活。”

Mr. Gumanenko, whose farm near Dnipro had been destroyed, spent the days after the attack going through the rubble to see what he could save to start sowing as soon as possible. “If you don’t sow it in time, you lose the harvest,” he said. He said that he probably would not be able to find soy seeds, but that his friends would give him other kinds.

古马年科在第聂伯罗附近的农场已被摧毁,袭击发生后,他花了几天时间在废墟里搜寻,看看还能找到什么有用的东西,以便尽快开始播种。“如果不及时播种,就没有收成了,”他说。他表示自己可能找不到大豆种子,但朋友们会给他其它豆类种子。

“They can shoot at us, but we’re going to keep working,” he said, adding, “I don’t know any other life. I was born a farmer and I’ll die a farmer.”

“他们可以朝我们开枪,但我们会继续干活,”他说,并补充道,“我过不了别的日子。我生来就是个种地的,死也要死在地里。”
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