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热射病与热衰竭:极端高温下如何保持健康?

How to Stay Cool and Safe in a Heat Wave
热射病与热衰竭:极端高温下如何保持健康?

Extreme heat is becoming increasingly common across the globe, with longer, more frequent heat waves spreading each year. These rising temperatures can put many at risk for heat-related illnesses, including heat stroke and heat exhaustion. Read on for guidance from experts on how to stay cool during the swelter — even without air conditioning.

极端高温在全球越来越普遍,热浪的持续时间和出现频率逐年增加。不断上升的气温令许多人有可能罹患热射病和热衰竭等与高温有关的疾病。以下是专家解释如何在酷暑中保持凉爽——即使没有空调。

Avoid heat-related illness

避免与炎热相关的疾病


Staying cool and hydrating often are the two most important things you can do to avoid feeling sick and discomfort when it’s extremely hot. If you don’t have an air conditioning unit, or if your A.C. has been on nonstop and you still feel hot, here are ways to cool your body and home:

在炎热天气里,要想避免生病和不适,保持凉爽和经常补充水分是最重要的两件事。如果你没有空调,或者空调一直开着却依然感觉很热,这里有一些方法,可以让你的身体和家中凉快一点:
 

• Spritz your skin with a mist of cool or room-temperature water.

·在皮肤上喷洒凉水或室温水。

• Block out the windows in your home — especially those that get afternoon sun — with a blanket or a darker sheet during the day to keep the heat out.

·白天用毯子或深色床单挡住家里的窗户,尤其是下午受到阳光照射的窗户,防止热量进入。

• If you don’t have A.C., keep windows open at night and run fans to circulate the air. Wirecutter, a New York Times company, has guidance on the best products to keep your home cool.

·如果没有空调,可以在晚上开着窗户,并且打开风扇,让空气流通。《纽约时报》旗下的Wirecutter提供了保持家居凉爽的最佳产品指导。

• Wipe your forehead with a cool cloth.

·用凉爽的湿布擦拭前额。

• Avoid strenuous exercise outdoors if possible.

·尽量避免剧烈户外运动。

• Put ice cubes in your water bottle, especially if you’re outdoors.

·在水瓶里放一些冰块,尤其是在户外期间。

• If you do plan to exercise outside, or need to exert yourself outdoors for work, drink a slushie beforehand or douse your head in cold water. Cold showers can also help you cool down.

·如果你计划在户外锻炼,或者因为工作需要在户外运动,事先喝一杯冰沙,或者用冷水浇头。洗冷水澡也有助于降温。

Watch for signs of heat exhaustion

注意热衰竭的迹象


For adults, the C.D.C. says to watch out for symptoms of heat exhaustion, which include heavy sweating; cold, pale and clammy skin; a fast, weak pulse; nausea or vomiting; muscle cramps; fatigue; dizziness; or headaches and fainting. If you are experiencing these symptoms, sip water, move to a cooler location if possible, loosen your clothes, or try to take a cool bath or place cool, wet cloths on your body. Seek medical attention immediately if you vomit or if your symptoms worsen or last longer than an hour.

疾病控制与预防中心表示,对于成年人来说,要注意的热衰竭症状包括大量出汗;皮肤冰冷、发白、湿粘;脉搏快而微弱;恶心或呕吐;肌肉痉挛;疲劳;头晕;或者头痛和昏厥。如果你出现这些症状,小口喝水,如果可能的话,转移到较为凉爽的地方,松开衣服,或尽量洗个凉水澡,或在身上放置凉爽的湿布。如果出现呕吐,或症状出现恶化,又或症状持续超过一小时,应立即就医。

Recognize the signs of heat stroke

识别热射病的迹象


The symptoms of heat stroke, according to the C.D.C., include a high body temperature (103°F or higher); hot, red, dry or damp skin; a fast and strong pulse; a headache; dizziness; nausea; confusion and passing out. If someone is experiencing these symptoms, call 911 immediately, and try to move the person into the shade or a cooler area if available; use cool cloths or a cool bath to lower their body temperature. Do not give them anything to drink.

疾病控制与预防中心表示,热射病的症状包括发烧(39摄氏度或更高);皮肤发热、发红、发干或变湿;脉搏快而强烈;头痛;头晕;恶心;意识模糊和昏厥。如果出现这些症状,立即拨打911,并尽量把患者转移到阴凉处或更冷的地方;用凉爽的湿布或冷水浴为患者降温。不要给患者喝任何东西。

Making matters more confusing, denial can be also be a symptom of heat stroke. A person with heat-related illness may start stumbling or appear less coordinated than usual. Ask the person if they have a headache, nausea or dizziness. Talk to them about a variety of topics to see if they exhibit symptoms of confusion.

更加令人困惑的是,否认身体不适也可能是热射病的一种症状。热射病和热衰竭者可能步履踉跄,或显得不像平时那样协调。可以询问对方是否头痛、恶心或头晕。与他们谈论各种话题,看看他们是否表现出意识不清的症状。

If you suspect a person is having a problem with the heat, err on the side of caution and insist they get into shade or somewhere cool. Have them drink water and spray their body with cold water or rub them down with ice or a cold cloth. If they don’t cool down quickly, seek medical advice.

如果你怀疑某人患了热射病或热衰竭,还是谨慎为上,坚持让他们去阴凉处或凉爽的地方。让他们喝水,用冷水喷洒身体,或用冰块及凉爽湿布擦拭身体。如果他们不能迅速降温,应寻求医疗建议。

Kids should be instructed that if their friends start acting funny or confused or mumbling, they should alert an adult.

应该告诉孩子们,如果朋友开始表现得奇怪、意识不清或喃喃自语,他们应该告诉大人。

Stay hydrated

保持水分


There’s not a one-size-fits-all rule for the amount of water to drink, said Adriana Quinones-Camacho, M.D., a cardiologist at N.Y.U. Lagone Health. But everyone should expect to drink more than they normally would, and constant access to water is key. Drink even when you’re not thirsty. Since we lose electrolytes when we sweat, drinking Gatorade or other sports drinks with electrolytes can also help, she said. “Think of it similar to running a marathon, with how much people can sweat on a day like today,” she said.

纽约大学拉贡健康中心的心脏病专家阿德里亚娜·奎诺尼斯-卡马乔博士说,关于饮水量并没有一个通用规则。但每个人都应该比平时喝更多水,而且关键是持续摄入水分。即使不渴也要喝水。她说,因为我们出汗时会失去电解质,所以喝佳得乐或其他含电解质的运动饮料也有帮助。“就像跑马拉松一样,要看人们在像今天这样的一天能出多少汗,”她说。

To ascertain how much water you should drink, “you want to watch your output,” said Dr. James Mark, an emergency medicine physician at Cleveland Clinic in Ohio. If you’re urinating less frequently than normal, or if your urine is a concentrated, dark yellow or gold color, that’s a sign you should drink more fluids. If you are urinating frequently and your urine looks clear, you are likely sufficiently hydrated.

为了确定你应该喝多少水,“你需要观察自己的排泄,”俄亥俄州克利夫兰诊所的急诊医生詹姆斯·马克博士说。如果你排尿的频率低于正常水平,或者尿液是浓缩的,呈暗黄色或金色,这表明你应该摄入更多液体。如果你经常排尿,尿液看起来很清澈,说明你体内水分充足。

Avoid consuming alcoholic or caffeinated drinks, which can be dehydrating.

避免饮用含酒精或咖啡因的饮料,它们可能导致脱水。

Eat foods to help you cool off

食用有助降温的食物


Eating fruits that have water in them can help you fend off the heat, Dr. Quinones-Camacho said. If you’re having salty foods, drink extra water to balance it out. Try to stay away from hot, body-warming foods, like soup.

奎诺内斯-卡马乔说,食用含有水分的水果有助于抵御高温。如果食用较咸的食物,就需要多喝水来平衡。尽量不要吃热的、让体温升高的食物,比如汤。

Keep kids safe in the heat

让孩子们在高温下保持安全


Young children are especially vulnerable to heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Parents and caregivers should monitor their activity during hot weather and plan activities that are less likely to cause them to overheat, like running through sprinklers or playing in a pool. Also make sure kids are wearing lightweight, light-colored clothing, using sunscreen and hydrating regularly.

幼儿尤其容易罹患热射病和热衰竭。在炎热的天气里,父母和照顾者应该监控他们的活动,并安排一些不太会导致他们体温升高的活动,比如在洒水器下跑步或在游泳池里玩耍。还要确保孩子们穿着轻便、浅色的衣服,使用防晒霜并定期补水。

If a child is playing outside of the water, try to keep them in the shade and consider bringing a spray bottle to spritz their skin (and your own).

如果孩子在户外玩耍,尽量让他们待在阴凉处,并考虑带一个喷雾瓶喷洒他们(和你自己)的皮肤。

When it is humid and at least 90 degrees, children should not play outside for more than 30 minutes at a time. Keep babies under 12 months out of the sun as much as possible.

当天气潮湿且温度在32摄氏度以上时,儿童在室外玩耍的时间一次不应超过30分钟。12个月以下的婴儿要尽量远离阳光。

Teens tend to be more active than adults in the summer, Dr. Mark said, and should plan activities like hanging out in a park before noon, when the heat will be less intense.

马克说,在夏天,青少年往往比成年人更活跃,他们可以安排在中午之前到公园里闲逛之类活动,那时相对没那么炎热。

What are the signs of heat exhaustion in children?

儿童热衰竭的症状有哪些?


If a child develops heat exhaustion, she may start to feel dizzy and nauseated, suffer muscle cramps or begin vomiting. Her skin may feel cold and clammy to touch.

如果儿童出现热衰竭,可能会感到头晕恶心、肌肉痉挛或开始呕吐,皮肤摸起来可能又冷又湿。

If you observe these symptoms in a child, bring her to a cooler place; ask her to sit still or lie down; remove excess clothing; apply a cool, wet cloth or water to her skin and give her water to drink.

如果你在孩子身上观察到这些症状,把孩子带到凉爽的地方;让孩子静坐或躺下;去除多余的衣服;用凉爽湿布或水敷于皮肤,让孩子饮水。

What are the signs of heat stroke in children?

儿童热射病的迹象有哪些?


“In heat stroke, the skin is hot and dry instead of cold and clammy, and the child gets sleepy and maybe confused,” said Dr. Claire McCarthy, a pediatrician at Boston Children’s Hospital and an assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. Children with heat stroke may also experience a high fever or seizures.

“患热射病时,皮肤会变得又热又干,而不是又冷又湿,孩子会昏昏欲睡,可能还会神志不清,”波士顿儿童医院儿科医生、哈佛医学院儿科助理教授克莱尔·麦卡锡说。儿童患热射病也可能出现高烧或癫痫发作。

Heat stroke can also creep up on young kids who haven’t exerted themselves at all.

热射病也可能悄悄发生在完全没有运动的孩子身上。

“They’re either dressed too warmly in a hot environment, they’re left in a hot vehicle or in a room that doesn’t have any circulation, they’re out at the beach wrapped up in the sun,” said Dr. Tony Woodward, the medical director of emergency medicine at Seattle Children’s. “All of those kinds of things can lead to their temperature going up very quickly.”

“他们要么是在炎热的环境中穿得太多,要么待在高温的汽车里,要么是待在空气不流通的房间里,要么在海滩上晒太阳,”西雅图儿童医院急诊医学主任托尼·伍德沃德说:“这些都可能导致体温迅速上升。”

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics’ parenting website, HealthyChildren.org, half of children with heatstroke do not sweat.

根据美国儿科学会的育儿网站HealthyChildren.org,半数热射病患儿不出汗。

If you suspect that a child has heat stroke, call 911 and try to cool them down until help arrives.

如果你怀疑孩子患了热射病,打电话给911,并设法给孩子降温,直至救援到来。

Keep pets cool

让宠物保持凉爽


Extreme heat can be particularly dangerous for furry friends. Here are some simple precautions to protect dogs and other animals:

极端高温对毛茸茸的朋友们尤其危险。以下是一些保护狗和其他动物的简单注意事项:

• Walk your dog early in the morning or after sunset when the air and the streets are cooler. Avoid strenuously exercising your dog on very hot and humid days, and seek out shady trails or sidewalks whenever possible.

·在清晨或日落之后,当空气和街道比较凉爽的时候遛狗。避免在非常炎热和潮湿的日子让狗剧烈运动,并尽可能寻找荫凉的小径或人行道。

• Always carry water and a collapsible bowl. Stop often to make sure your pet is sufficiently hydrated; panting, which is how they lower body temperature, causes water loss.

·随身携带水和可折叠的碗。经常停下来,确保宠物有足够的水分;喘气是宠物降低体温的方式,会导致水分流失。

• If your dog tries to slow down or stop entirely, let them rest and take frequent breaks.

·如果狗试图放慢速度或完全停止,让它们休息,经常休息。

• If your dog shows any signs of overheating — excessive panting, lethargy, a deep red tongue — get them into cool water as soon as possible. A cool wet towel or piece of clothing can also help.

·如果你的狗表现出过热的迹象——过多喘气、嗜睡、舌头呈深红色——尽快把它们放到凉水里。湿凉的毛巾或衣服也有用。

• If signs of distress persist, go to a veterinarian immediately; organ failure can be rapid, irreversible and fatal.

·如果痛苦的症状不消除,立即去看兽医;器官衰竭可能是一个快速、不可逆并致命的过程。

• Keep your pets groomed.

·经常修剪宠物的毛发。

• A cooling mat can also give your pet respite.

·降温垫可以给宠物带来一些缓解。

Protect elderly people from heat

保护好老年人


“The number-one issue is to stay well-hydrated,” said Wayne McCormick, M.D., a gerontologist at the University of Washington School of Medicine. Older people should drink lots of their beverage of choice: “It can be water, it can be lemonade, just whatever is wet,” Dr. McCormick said. If mobility is an issue and someone can’t easily get to a public cooling center or an air-conditioned space like a mall, Dr. McCormick recommends they head to their basement, or get “as low as possible” within their home.

“首要的问题是避免脱水,”华盛顿大学医学院老年病学家韦恩·麦克米克博士说。老年人应该大量摄入他们偏好的饮品:“可以是水、柠檬水,或是一切含水的东西,”麦克米克说。如果行动不便,或者不方便去公共的降温中心或购物中心之类有空调的空间,麦克米克建议去地下室,或去家中“尽可能低的地方”。

If an older person shows signs that they are weak, tired, dizzy or nauseated, seek medical attention, Dr. Quinones-Camacho said.

如果老年人表现出虚弱、疲劳、眩晕或恶心,需要去看医生,奎诺尼斯-卡马乔说。

Sleep soundly in the heat

在炎热天气里得到充分睡眠


Use a breathable cotton sheet, Dr. Mark said. You can set up a fan near your bed and spray your sheet with cold water before sleeping, or place your pillow cases or sheet in a plastic bag and store in a freezer during the day. A cold bath or shower right before bed can also help.

应该使用透气性好的棉床单,马克说。你可以在窗边放个风扇,或睡前在床单上喷洒凉水,或在日间把枕巾或床单放在塑料袋里放入冰箱。睡前用凉水淋浴或泡澡也有帮助。

Stay hydrated before heading to bed, and if you wake in the middle of the night, drink water, Dr. Quinones-Camacho said.

上床前要保证摄入充足的水,如果半夜醒来,也要喝水,奎诺尼斯-卡马乔说。
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