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想活得更长久?也许你该每天喝咖啡

Coffee Drinking Linked to Lower Mortality Risk, New Study Finds
想活得更长久?也许你该每天喝咖啡

That morning cup of coffee may be linked to a lower risk of dying, researchers from a study published Monday in The Annals of Internal Medicine concluded. Those who drank 1.5 to 3.5 cups of coffee per day, even with a teaspoon of sugar, were up to 30 percent less likely to die during the study period than those who didn’t drink coffee. Those who drank unsweetened coffee were 16 to 21 percent less likely to die during the study period, with those drinking about three cups per day having the lowest risk of death when compared with noncoffee drinkers.

周一发表于《内科学纪事》的一项研究中,研究者得出结论,早上喝一杯咖啡可能与较低的死亡风险有关。在研究期间,每天喝1.5至3.5杯咖啡的人——即使加了一匙糖——比不喝咖啡的人的死亡风险低30%。在研究期间,每天喝不加糖咖啡的人死亡风险降低了16%到21%,与不喝咖啡的人相比,每天喝三杯咖啡的人死亡风险最低。

Researchers analyzed coffee consumption data collected from the U.K. Biobank, a large medical database with health information from people across Britain. They analyzed demographic, lifestyle and dietary information collected from more than 170,000 people between the ages of 37 and 73 over a median follow-up period of seven years. The mortality risk remained lower for people who drank both decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee. The data was inconclusive for those who drank coffee with artificial sweeteners.

研究者分析的咖啡摄入数据来自英国生物医学库,这个大型医学数据库涵盖了英国各地民众的健康信息。他们分析了17万人的人口学信息、生活方式和饮食信息,这些人的年龄范围在37岁至73岁之间,随访期中位数为7年。喝咖啡的人死亡风险更低,无论咖啡中是否含咖啡因。该数据对于在咖啡中添加人工甜味剂的人尚无定论。
 

“It’s huge. There are very few things that reduce your mortality by 30 percent,” said Dr. Christina Wee, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and a deputy editor of the scientific journal where the study was published. Dr. Wee edited the study and published a corresponding editorial in the same journal.

“这一发现意义重大。很少有因素能够将死亡风险降低30%,”哈佛医学院医学副教授克里斯蒂娜·韦伊博士说,她是发表该研究的科学期刊的副主编。韦伊博士是这篇研究论文的编辑,并在同一期刊发表了一篇通讯评论。

There are, however, major caveats to interpreting this research, she added. This is an observational study, which means the data cannot conclusively prove that coffee itself lowers the risk of dying; there may be other lifestyle factors contributing to that lower mortality risk among people who drink coffee, like a healthy diet or a consistent exercise routine.

然而,她补充说,在理解这项研究时,有一些地方要非常小心。这是一项观察性研究,意味着这些数据不能最终证明咖啡本身可以降低死亡风险;喝咖啡的人可能还有其他生活方式方面的因素,有助于降低他们的死亡率,例如健康的饮食或坚持锻炼的习惯。

The average amount of added sugar per cup of sweetened coffee in the study was a little more than a teaspoon — far less than what is typically added to many sugary drinks at coffee chains across the country. A tall Caramel Macchiato at Starbucks, for instance, contains 25 grams of sugar, about five times as much sugar as a sweetened cup of coffee from the study.

在这项研究中,平均每杯加糖咖啡的加糖量稍高于一茶匙——远远低于英国各地的咖啡连锁店通常在许多甜味饮品中的添加量。例如,星巴克的一杯中杯焦糖玛奇朵含25克糖,大概是该研究中加糖咖啡糖量的五倍。

“All bets are off when it comes to matching this with a latte, a Frappuccino, the super mocha whipped whatever,” said Dr. Eric Goldberg, a clinical associate professor of medicine at the N.Y.U. Grossman School of Medicine. These beverages tend to be high in calories and fat, he said, potentially negating or at least blunting any benefit from the coffee itself.

纽约大学格罗斯曼医学院医学临床副教授埃里克·戈德堡博士说:“比起拿铁、星冰乐、超级摩卡加搅打奶油什么的,这根本不算什么。”他说,这些饮料的卡路里和脂肪含量往往很高,可能会抵消或至少削弱咖啡本身的任何好处。

This new study is the latest in a robust line of research showing coffee’s potential health advantages, he said. Previous research has linked coffee consumption with a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, liver and prostate cancers and other health issues.

他说,这项新研究是一系列强有力研究中的最新成果,显示了咖啡可能存在的健康优势。先前的研究已将咖啡摄入与帕金森病、心脏病、2型糖尿病、肝癌和前列腺癌以及其他健康问题的风险降低联系起来。

Scientists don’t know exactly what makes coffee so beneficial, Dr. Goldberg said, but the answer may lie in its antioxidant properties, which can prevent or delay cell damage. Coffee beans contain high amounts of antioxidants, said Beth Czerwony, a registered dietitian at the Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Human Nutrition in Ohio, which can help break down free radicals that cause damage to cells. Over time, a buildup of free radicals can increase inflammation in the body, which can cause plaque formation related to heart disease, she said, so dietitians recommend consuming foods and beverages that are rich in antioxidants.

戈德堡博士说,科学家并不知道具体是什么使咖啡如此有益,但答案可能在于其能够防止或延迟细胞损伤的抗氧化性质。俄亥俄州克利夫兰诊所人类营养中心的注册营养师贝丝·切尔沃尼说,咖啡豆含有大量抗氧化物质,可以帮助分解导致细胞损伤的自由基。她说,随着时间的推移,自由基的积累会增加体内的炎症,从而导致与心脏病相关的斑块形成,因此营养师建议食用富含抗氧化剂的食物和饮料。

There’s also the possibility that coffee drinkers tend to make healthier choices in general. They might opt for a cold brew or a cup of drip coffee instead of a less healthy source of caffeine, like an energy drink or soda, Dr. Goldberg added. “If you’re pounding Mountain Dew or Coca-Cola or Red Bull or all these other drinks, they have tons more sugar, all the artificial stuff — versus coffee, which is a generally unprocessed food.”

同时,喝咖啡的人一般来说也有可能会做出更健康的选择。戈德堡博士补充说,他们可能会选择冷萃咖啡或一杯滴漏咖啡,而不是像能量饮料或汽水这样不太健康的咖啡因饮品。“如果你正在给自己灌激浪、可口可乐、红牛或其他类似饮料,它们含有更多的糖,还有那些人造的东西——而咖啡是一种通常未经加工的食物。”

Despite the encouraging evidence about coffee, there isn’t enough data to suggest that people who don’t currently drink coffee should add a stop to Starbucks during their morning routines, Dr. Wee said. And even avid coffee drinkers shouldn’t use the study to justify endless cups of java. The study showed that the benefits of coffee tapered off for people who drank more than 4.5 cups of coffee each day. Past studies have shown that consuming “extreme amounts” — over seven cups per day — can take a toll, she said.

韦伊博士说,尽管关于咖啡的证据令人鼓舞,但没有足够的数据表明,目前不喝咖啡的人应该在早上去一趟星巴克。即使是狂热的咖啡爱好者也不应该用这项研究来证明没完没了喝咖啡的合理性。研究表明,对于每天喝超过4.5杯咖啡的人来说,咖啡的好处逐渐减少。她说,过去的研究表明,每天超过七杯的“极端摄入量”有损健康。

“Moderation is good,” Dr. Goldberg said. “But too much of a good thing isn’t necessarily more of a good thing.”

“适量是好事,”戈德伯格博士说。“但是好的东西摄入太多未必会更好。”
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