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关于猴痘,你应该知道的几个关键问题

What Is Monkeypox?
关于猴痘,你应该知道的几个关键问题

The rare monkeypox virus, usually confined mostly to Central and West Africa, has spread in unusual ways this year, and among populations that have not been vulnerable in the past.

猴痘病毒非常罕见,通常出现在中非和西非,但今年却以不同寻常的方式在过去不容易感染的人群中传播。

But while the transmissions have created some alarm among officials and infectious disease experts, and while a Covid-weary world is on high alert for new outbreaks, there are several reasons monkeypox is not being treated with the same level of concern as the coronavirus.

但是,尽管这种传播在官员和传染病专家中引起了一些警觉,尽管厌倦了新冠病毒的世界对新疫情保持高度警惕,但因为一些原因,猴痘没有得到与新冠病毒同等程度的关注。
 

罗马一家医院的院长弗朗西斯科·瓦亚周五举行新闻发布会,该医院已确诊并隔离了三例猴痘病例。

Here’s what to know about monkeypox and the risks it poses.

以下是有关猴痘及其风险的一些知识。

What is monkeypox?

什么是猴痘?


Monkeypox is a virus endemic in parts of Central and West Africa. It is a more benign version of smallpox.

猴痘是中非和西非部分地区流行的一种病毒,是一种较为温和的天花。

It was discovered in 1958, after outbreaks occurred in monkeys kept for research, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

据美国疾病控制与预防中心的说法,1958年,在用于研究而饲养的猴子中发生疫情后,人们发现了这种病毒。

What are the symptoms?

它有什么症状?


Monkeypox creates a rash that starts with flat red marks that become raised and filled with pus. Infected people will also have a fever and body aches.

猴痘会产生一种皮疹,开始是扁平的红斑,然后凸起并充满脓液。感染者还会出现发烧和身体疼痛。

Symptoms typically appear in six to 13 days but can take as long as three weeks after exposure. They can last for two to four weeks, with severe cases occurring more commonly among children, according to the World Health Organization.

症状通常在感染后六至13天出现,但最长可达三周。根据世界卫生组织的数据,病情可能持续二到四周,严重的病例通常发生在儿童当中。

The C.D.C. says there is “no proven, safe treatment” for monkeypox but the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of smallpox vaccines and antiviral treatments to control outbreaks.

疾控中心表示,猴痘“没有经过证实的安全治疗方法”,但美国食品和药物管理局已经批准使用天花疫苗和抗病毒治疗来控制疫情。

How infectious is it?

它的传染性如何?


Typically it does not lead to major outbreaks — in most years there are just a handful of cases outside Africa, if any. The most severe outbreak in the United States came in 2003, when dozens of cases were linked to exposure to infected prairie dogs and other pets. It was the first time there had been a monkeypox outbreak outside of Africa, according to the World Health Organization.

通常情况下,它不会导致大规模疫情——大多数年份,在非洲以外,就算有病例也是屈指可数。美国最严重的一次疫情发生在2003年,当时出现了数十起病例,与接触受感染的草原犬鼠和其他宠物有关。据世界卫生组织称,这是非洲以外首次出现猴痘疫情。

Within Africa, 11 countries have reported cases since 1970, when the first human case was identified in a 9-year-old boy in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Nigeria has experienced a large outbreak, with more than 500 suspected cases and 200 confirmed cases since 2017, the W.H.O. said.

在非洲,自1970年在刚果民主共和国一名九岁男童身上发现首个人类病例以来,已有11个国家报告了病例。世卫组织表示,尼日利亚经历过一次大规模暴发,自2017年以来,已有超过500多起疑似病例和200起确诊病例。

The virus can spread via body fluids, skin contact and respiratory droplets. The majority of cases this year have been in young men, many of whom self-identified as men who have sex with men.

这种病毒可以通过体液、皮肤接触和呼吸道飞沫传播。今年的大多数病例发生在年轻男性身上,其中许多人自称是男男性行为者。

“Most cases presented with lesions on the genitalia or peri-genital area, indicating that transmission likely occurs during close physical contact during sexual activities,” the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control said on Friday.

“大多数患者的生殖器或生殖器周围出现病变,表明可能发生在性活动期间的亲密身体接触中,”欧洲疾病预防与控制中心周五表示。

How many cases have there been this year, and where have they been?

今年有多少病例,都发生在哪里?


There had been 38 cases worldwide this year as of Thursday, including 37 with no history of travel to endemic countries, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Britain reported an additional 11 cases on Friday.

据欧洲疾病预防和控制中心的数据,截至上周四,今年全球已出现38宗病例,其中37人没有前往该病毒流行国家的历史。英国周五又报告了11宗病例。

In the United States, the first case of 2022 was diagnosed in Massachusetts on Wednesday. The man had recently traveled to Canada, which has had two cases this year.

美国于上周三在马萨诸塞州发现了2022年的首宗病例。这名男子最近曾经前往加拿大,该国今年发生了两宗病例。

On Sunday, public health officials in Florida said they had identified one presumptive case of monkeypox in Broward County in a person who had recently traveled internationally. The person has been placed in isolation, officials said.

周日,佛罗里达州的公共卫生官员表示,他们在布劳沃德县发现了一例猴痘疑似病例,患者最近曾有国际旅行的经历。官员们说,这名男子已被隔离。

New York City health authorities said on Friday that they had tested two patients who were under investigation for possible monkeypox.

纽约市卫生当局上周五表示,他们对两名正在接受调查的猴痘疑似患者进行了检测。

“One case has been ruled out and another has been identified as positive for Orthopoxvirus, the family of viruses to which monkeypox belongs,” the city Department of Health and Mental Hygiene said on Twitter. Confirmation for monkeypox was pending testing by the C.D.C., it said.

“一个病例已被排除,另一个病例已被确认为正痘病毒阳性,猴痘属于正痘病毒属,”纽约市卫生局在Twitter上表示。该局称,猴痘的确诊还有待疾控中心的检测。

Europe has been hit much harder. As of Thursday, Portugal had reported 17 cases, Spain has had seven, Belgium has had two, and France, Italy and Sweden have each had one.

欧洲受到的打击要严重得多。截至上周四,葡萄牙已报告17例,西班牙七例,比利时两例,法国、意大利和瑞典各一例。

Britain had reported nine cases as of Thursday, but Sajid Javid, Britain’s health secretary, said on Friday that the number had risen to 20. The W.H.O. said on Thursday that the country’s infections appeared to be locally acquired, but “the extent of local transmission is unclear at this stage and there is the possibility of identification of further cases.”

截至上周四,英国报告了九例,但英国卫生大臣赛义德·贾维德上周五表示,病例数已增至20例。世卫组织上周四表示,该国的感染似乎是本土病例,但“目前尚不清楚本土传播的程度,有可能发现更多病例”。

None of the infected people have died, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

据欧洲疾病预防和控制中心称,没有一例感染者死亡。

How is the current outbreak different?

当前的疫情有何不同之处?


This is the first time that chains of transmission were reported in Europe without links to West or Central Africa, according to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. The agency also said this year’s cases included the first that have been reported among men who have sex with men.

据欧洲疾病预防和控制中心称,这是欧洲首次报告与西非或中非没有联系的传播链。该机构还表示,今年的病例包括男男性行为者中报告的首例。

Should I be worried?

我应该担心吗?


The likelihood of the virus being spread during sexual contact is high, but the risk of transmission from other forms of close contact is low, the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control said.

欧洲疾病预防与控制中心表示,该病毒通过性接触传播的可能性很高,但通过其他形式密切接触传播的风险较低。

The symptoms are typically mild, and most people recover within weeks, but the virus has had a fatality rate of about 3.3 percent in Nigeria, with children, young adults and immunocompromised people most susceptible.

这种病毒的症状通常很轻微,大多数人会在几周内康复,但在尼日利亚,这种病毒的致死率约为3.3%,儿童、年轻人和免疫功能低下的人最容易感染。
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