President Obama has a Harvard law degree. Former President George W. Bush has a Harvard M.B.A. Will the next president have both?
总统奥巴马(Obama)有哈佛大学法律学位。前总统乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)有哈佛大学工商管理学硕士学位。下一个总统会同时拥有这两个学位吗？
One of the most exclusive clubs in academe is a Harvard University dual-degree program allowing graduate students to attend its law and business schools simultaneously, cramming five years of education into four. On average, about 12 people per year have completed the program — the overachievers of the overachievers — including a striking number of big names in finance, industry, law and government.
The program is so small that it has drawn little attention outside rarefied circles, but that may change as its most famous graduate, Mitt Romney, campaigns for the White House, subjecting every phase of his life to scrutiny.
When Harvard started its so-called J.D.-M.B.A. program in 1969, there were just a handful like it. Others have cropped up since, but Harvard’s has what may be the most successful alumni roster, particularly in finance.
In addition to Mr. Romney, founder of Bain Capital, the roughly 500 graduates include Bruce Wasserstein, who led the investment bank Lazard until he died in 2009; leaders of multibillion-dollar hedge fund and private equity firms like Canyon Capital Advisors, Silver Lake Partners and Crestview Partners; high-ranking executives at banks like Citigroup and Credit Suisse; C. James Koch, founder of the Boston Beer Company; and Theodore V. Wells Jr., one of the nation’s top trial lawyers.
除了贝恩资本 (Bain Capital)的创始人罗姆尼，该项目的大约500名毕业生还包括一直领导拉扎德投资银行(Lazard) , 直到2009年去世的沃瑟斯坦(Wasserstein)；资产上亿的对冲基金和私募股权公司的领袖，如峡谷资本顾问公司(Canyon Capital Advisors)、银湖伙伴公司(Silver Lake Partners)和景峰伙伴公司(Crestview Partners)的领头人物；各大银行的高管们，如花旗银行(Citigroup)和瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)；波士顿啤酒公司(Boston Beer Company)的创立者C·詹姆斯·科克(C. James Koch)；以及美国顶尖的辩护律师之一小西奥多·V·韦尔斯(Theodore V. Wells Jr.)。
The young Mr. Romney wanted to go to business school, while his father, George W. Romney, a cabinet secretary and former Michigan governor, urged him to go to law school. So the younger Mr. Romney did both, studying at Harvard from 1971 to 1975.
罗姆尼年轻时想去商学院学习，但他的父亲，身为内阁部长和前密歇根州州长的乔治·W·罗姆尼(George W. Romney)却敦促小罗姆尼读法学院。所以，年轻的罗姆尼同时在哈佛的两个学院学习了四年（1971-1975）。
“What was special about these people was that they had bandwidth,” said Malcolm S. Salter, an emeritus business professor who helped create the program. “They had to be driven, hard-working and organized to a degree that was unusual even for Harvard business or law grad students.”
协助创立双学位项目的退休教授马尔科姆·S·索尔特(Malcolm S. Salter)说：“这些人的特别之处在于他们能多头兼顾。他们必须进取心强、刻苦努力，而且有条有理，甚至超过多数哈佛法学院和商学院的学生。”
Guhan Subramanian, who graduated from the program in 1998 and now is its faculty chairman, said the students could be viewed as “résumé builders who haven’t figured out what to do with their lives and are just checking off all the boxes.” But he said they are genuinely interested in mastering both fields.
1998年毕业于这个项目的古翰·苏布拉曼联(Guhan Subramanian)现在担任该项目主任。他说，这些学生就像是“正在编写自己履历的人，他们还未决定今生要干什么，所以每一个选项都打勾。”不过， 他说他们真的愿意同时精通这两个领域。
Students must be admitted separately to the business and law schools before applying for the program. That is a feat in itself, because the two student bodies are quite different.
The law school takes younger students, often straight out of college, putting more emphasis on academic credentials, while the business school usually wants work and leadership experience. Business students are often described as being more gregarious and at ease with numbers, law students as more intellectual and facile with words.
And then there are politics.
“I was among the most conservative people at the law school and one of the most liberal people at the business school,” said Peter Halasz, a partner at the law firm Schulte Roth & Zabel, who completed the program in the early 1980s. “Studying at both exposes you to many different kinds of people and various sides of an argument.”
Schulte Roth & Zabel律师事务所的合伙人彼得·豪拉斯(Peter Halasz)上世纪80年代早期毕业于这个项目。他说，“我是法学院里最保守的，又是商学院里最开放的。同时在两所学院学习，让你有机会接触到各种各样的人和各种不同的思想。”
The political gap was wider in Mr. Romney’s era, scarred by Vietnam and Watergate, when law students wore T-shirts and business students wore ties to class. “The law school was very swept up in the politics of the time, but the business school pretty much ignored them,” said Detlev Vagts, a law professor who ran the program for more than 30 years.
罗姆尼所处的时代，政治鸿沟更大。那一代人经历了越战和水门事件的创痛。当时的法学院学生都穿着T恤上课，而商学院学生则打着领带。管理该项目30余年的法学教授德特勒夫·瓦茨 (Detlev Vagts)说，“法学院深深卷入当时的政治当中，可是商学院却基本不问政治。”
Lawrence Golub, chief executive of the Golub Capital investment firm, said that the vast majority of graduates end up in business rather than law because of the earnings potential and the quality of life. “One learns that the life of associate at a big corporate law firm is demanding, unpleasant and not as lucrative as what you can do on the business side,” said Mr. Golub, who graduated from the program in 1984 and founded its alumni society.
Golub Capital投资公司的首席执行官劳伦斯·戈卢布(Lawrence Golub)说，考虑到挣钱的机会和生活的质量，绝大多数毕业生最终从事了商业方面的工作，而不是法律。戈卢布说：“学生意识到在一家大型律师事务所干活既耗费心力，又不愉快，而且还不如从商挣钱多。”戈卢布1984年从该项目毕业，并建立了自己的校友会。
In the 1970s, many graduates went into management consulting, as Mr. Romney did, but for most of the program’s history, finance has dominated, which some people connected to the program find mildly disappointing. Professor Salter said he had hoped the program would produce more public servants.
But former students and professors say it makes sense that a group of overachievers would be drawn to financial markets, a hypercompetitive field with the promise of immense riches.
“When you’re negotiating as a banker, it helps to throw in a few choice legal terms to suggest that you could help them think through how the deal can get done from a legal point of view,” he said.
Students start by taking the first year of one program, and then the first year of the other. In their third and fourth years, they take courses from both.
Those who start with the first year of law school — often regarded as the hardest — as Mr. Romney did are more likely to complete both degrees.
But in another sense, Mr. Romney is atypical. He is one of only two alumni to have a high-profile career in politics, along with Christopher Cox, a former congressman and Securities and Exchange Commission chairman. (In a historical quirk, Jack Ryan, Mr. Obama’s Republican opponent in the 2004 Senate race in Illinois, has a Harvard J.D.-M.B.A. He dropped out of the race amid allegations that he had pressured his former wife to go to sex clubs.)
但从另一方面说，罗姆尼是个非典型的例子。他是两名唯一高调从事政治的校友中的一位，另一位是克里斯托弗·考克斯(Christopher Cox)，前国会议员及政券交易委员会(Securities and Exchange Commission)主席。历史总有怪异的巧合，奥巴马2004年竞选伊利诺斯州议员时的竞争对手——共和党人杰克·瑞安(Jack Ryan)也有哈佛法律博士及工商管理硕士双学位。瑞安被指强迫其前妻参加性俱乐部，之后退出了竞选。
As long as politics remains a relatively low-paying, fickle career, graduates do not expect to see many students taking the political path. All the more reason that other dual-degree graduates, whether or not they support Mr. Romney, admit to being intrigued by the prospect that one of theirs might become president.
“Who knows,” Mr. Golub said, “maybe we’ll be holding our next reunion at the White House.”