For years, Claire McCarville dreamed of going to college in New York or Los Angeles, and was thrilled last month to get accepted to selective schools in both places. But earlier this month, she sent a $300 deposit to Arizona State University, a 15-minute drive from her home in Phoenix. “It made more sense,” she said, “in light of the virus.”
Across the country, students like Ms. McCarville are rethinking their choices in a world altered by the pandemic. And universities, concerned about the potential for shrinking enrollment and lost revenue, are making a wave of decisions in response that could profoundly alter the landscape of higher education for years to come.
Lucrative spring sports seasons have been canceled, room and board payments have been refunded, and students at some schools are demanding hefty tuition discounts for what they see as a lost spring term. Other revenue sources like study abroad programs and campus bookstores have dried up, and federal research funding is threatened.
Already, colleges have seen their endowments weakened, and worry that fund-raising efforts will founder even as many families need more financial aid. They also expect to lose international students, especially from Asia, because of travel restrictions and concerns about studying abroad. Foreign students, usually paying full tuition, represent a significant revenue source everywhere, from the Ivy League to community colleges.
Some institutions are projecting $100 million losses for the spring, and many are now bracing for an even bigger financial hit in the fall, when some are planning for the possibility of having to continue remote classes.
Administrators anticipate that students grappling with the financial and psychological impacts of the virus could choose to stay closer to home, go to less expensive schools, take a year off or not go to college at all. A higher education trade group has predicted a 15 percent drop in enrollment nationwide, amounting to a $23 billion revenue loss.
“The combination of fear for health and safety and the economic impact at the same time is one that I haven’t experienced, and I don’t think most university leaders have,” said Kent D. Syverud, the chancellor of Syracuse University.
雪城大学(Syracuse University)校长肯特·塞弗鲁德(Kent D. Syverud)说：“要同时担心健康安全和经济影响，是我从未有过的经历，而且我认为大多数大学的领导人也没有。”
“Will families choose to send their kids to college?” he wondered. “Will they choose to not send them or delay them? I just haven’t found anybody who has the best crystal ball to answer it.”
The coronavirus forced campuses to shut down at a time when higher education, which employs nearly four million people across the country, was already facing major challenges. Population declines are expected to reduce enrollment, even as skyrocketing tuition and student debt have led to questions about whether a college education is worth the cost.
In mid-March, Moody’s Investors Service downgraded the outlook for higher education from stable to negative, predicting that institutions with strong endowments and cash flow, like Harvard or Stanford, would weather the virus, while smaller ones would not.
3月中旬，穆迪投资者服务公司(Moody’s Investors Service)将高等教育前景的评级从稳定下调为负面，并预测像哈佛大学或斯坦福大学这样拥有雄厚捐赠和现金流的学校将扛住病毒带来的损失，而规模较小的学校则不妙。
But even wealthy universities have begun announcing austerity measures. Robert Zimmer, president of the University of Chicago, said in an April 7 email to staff that to buffer its losses, the university would freeze salaries, slow academic hiring, suspend discretionary spending and look for other budget cuts. The University of Pennsylvania announced similar measures, including a hiring freeze and a pause in new capital projects, on Monday.
但即使是富裕的大学也开始宣布紧缩措施。芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)校长罗伯特·齐默(Robert Zimmer)在4月7日给员工的电子邮件中表示，为缓冲损失，该大学将冻结薪酬，减缓学术招聘，中止可自由支配的支出，并寻求其他预算削减。宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania )周一也宣布了类似的措施，包括冻结招聘和暂停新的资本项目。
“I think it’s a greater systemic shock” than either the financial crisis of 2008 or the terrorist attacks of 2001, said Susan Fitzgerald, a Moody’s analyst. “We don’t know how long it’s going to go on or the multiple impacts.”
Colby College, a liberal arts school in Maine, has taken a typical blow. Its endowment, a rainy-day fund that can also serve as a proxy for a college’s financial health, dropped to $770 million earlier this month from $900 million at the end of last year. (It has since partially rebounded to $803 million.) And like many colleges, Colby has had to refund room and board for students asked to leave campus.
It has been able to balance its budget through a hiring freeze and savings on travel and events. But, said David Greene, Colby’s president, “in the long run, that is not a winning strategy.”
Like other administrators, Mr. Greene is hoping to reopen with classes on campus, rather than online, even if it means deferring the start of the fall semester. “Our whole model of education and all of its power comes from close human interaction,” he said.
But he can only delay so long. “If we had to start in October instead of September, that is not a real problem for us,” he said. “If we had to start in November instead of September, that’s probably not a real problem. What if we started in January and went through August? That would be a very different kind of problem.”
Although Congress provided $14 billion for higher education in the $2 trillion rescue bill signed by President Trump last month, a large chunk of that, $6 billion, was in the form of emergency cash grants for students in financial distress.
The rest of the bailout amounts to just 1 percent of total university expenses. College presidents say that won’t be enough to protect some institutions from slashing staff and programs, cutting back scholarships or perhaps even going under. They are asking for at least $46.6 billion in aid, to be divided equally between institutions and students, in the next stimulus package.
There are some 4,000 two-year and four-year public and private colleges and universities in the United States, educating roughly 20 million students. They generated about $650 billion in revenues in 2016-17, and in some states, like California, Iowa and Maryland, they are the largest employers, according to the American Council on Education, a trade group.
美国有大约4000所二年制和四年制的公立及私立大专院校，为大约2000万名在校学生提供教育。根据行业组织美国教育理事会(American Council on Education)的数据，2016年至2017年，它们创造了约6500亿美元的收入，在加利福尼亚、艾奥瓦和马里兰等州，它们是最大的雇主。
The council predicted in an April 9 letter to House Speaker Nancy Pelosi that college enrollment for the next academic year would drop by 15 percent, including 25 percent for international students from countries like China who often pay full tuition, helping universities meet their budgets and afford financial aid for Americans.
“The pandemic is striking during the height of the admissions process,” the letter said. “College and university leaders are fully expecting significant, potentially unparalleled, declines in enrollment, both from students who do not come back, and those who will never start.”
The spring is prime testing season for juniors applying to college in the fall. But dates for the SAT and ACT have been canceled, and Advanced Placement subject tests have been truncated.
In light of the turmoil caused by the pandemic, a growing number of schools, from the small but elite Williams College in Williamstown, Mass., to the massive University of California system, are suspending the requirement that students take the SAT or ACT test for admission, accelerating a national trend of making the tests optional.
鉴于疫情造成的混乱局面，从马萨诸塞州威廉斯敦规模较小的精英学校威廉姆斯学院(Williams College)到规模庞大的加州大学(University of California)，越来越多的学校暂缓了对学生参加SAT或ACT考试的入学要求，加速了让这些考试成为非必须选项的全国性趋势。
David Coleman, the president of the College Board, which administers the SAT, said last week that he was preparing for “an at-home style solution” for testing if the national shutdowns continue, and the organization plans to make an announcement on Wednesday about the future of the SAT.
SAT考试主管机构大专院校委员会(College Board)会长戴威·科尔曼(David Coleman)上周表示，他正在为该考试准备一个“在家完成的解决方案”，以备全国范围内的学校继续停课，该机构计划在周三宣布SAT考试的未来。
Many current students are dissatisfied with how the virus has changed the nature of college. To some, online classes and closed student centers, gyms and science labs don’t seem worth the high prices they’re paying. At places like the University of Chicago and Iowa State, students are petitioning their schools to cut tuition by as much as 50 percent for as long as the pandemic lasts.
很多在校学生对这种病毒改变了大学的性质感到不满。一些人认为，学生中心、健身房和科学实验室都被封闭，只提供在线课程，这些似乎不值得他们为此付出高昂学费。在芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)和艾奥瓦州立大学(Iowa State)等校，学生们向学校请愿，要求在疫情持续期间，将学费削减至多50%。
So far, universities have resisted, saying they will try to increase financial aid instead — although declining endowments and donations could make that difficult. The University of Chicago announced Monday that it would keep tuition, housing and fees flat.
大学目前仍是拒绝的，并表示将设法增加财政援助，然而捐赠基金和捐款的减少可能会使其非常困难。芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)周一宣布，学费、住宿和其他费用将保持不变。
For most universities, the question of how prospective students will react remains the great unknown. Already, many colleges have moved the deadline for students to accept admission from May 1 to June 1. And some schools are considering whether they will need to push that even further.
Orientation day, said Richard Ekman, president of the Council of Independent Colleges, “is probably the first time you’re going to know who’s really going to show up. Then you’ve got to scramble to add faculty or fire faculty or shift faculty. A lot of things that would have been done in a considered way will now in all likelihood be done at the last minute.”
独立学院理事会(Council of Independent Colleges)主席理查德·埃克曼(Richard Ekman)说，可能直到迎新日“你才能知道实际有哪些人会来。然后你就得赶紧增加教员，解雇教员，或者换掉教员。以前很多经过深思熟虑后才做出的决定，现在很可能都要在最后一刻才能做出。”
One group of students that could see a silver lining, said Hafeez Lakhani, a college admissions coach, is high school juniors. Despite disruptions to testing and the admissions process, it could be easier for them to get into their stretch schools or off the wait list if overall enrollment declines — especially for those who can afford to pay full tuition, if fewer international students apply to U.S. schools.
Small institutions like Hampshire College in Amherst, Mass., are more vulnerable to financial setbacks than big ones. Hampshire’s president, Ed Wingenbach, has put together a working group that is considering shorter units of study that would allow students to cycle in and out of remote learning if the virus comes and goes.
和大型学校相比，马萨诸塞州阿默斯特的汉普郡学院(Hampshire College)这样的小学校更容易受到财政困难的冲击。汉普郡学院的校长艾德·温格巴奇(Ed Wingenbach)成立了一个工作组，考虑缩短学习单元，在起起落落的疫情中方便学生们完成远程学习的切换。
“If we’re looking at remote learning in the fall,” he said, “I think it’s more likely students will take a gap year or semester, and that will have a different impact on revenue.”
Ms. McCarville, the student in Phoenix, said the coronavirus had made her more sensitive to price over marquee names, and to the value of being close to her family. Although her dream schools, Skidmore in Saratoga Springs, N.Y., and Loyola Marymount in Los Angeles, offered her scholarships, tuition at Arizona State was cheaper, and the overall package was better.
In the past, that might not have mattered to her. But after the coronavirus, it does.
“I would rather go to the least expensive school possible,” Ms. McCarville said, “just so I minimize my debt when I enter the work force, and I’m not in over my head in a very uncertain situation.”